Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel time-multiplexed autostereoscopic multi-view full resolution 3D display based on the lenticular lens array in association with the control of the active dynamic LED backlight. The lenticular lenses of the lens array optical system receive the light and deflect the light into each viewing zone in a time sequence.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).
  3. R. Braspenning, E. Brouwer, and G. de Haan, “Visual quality assessment of lenticular based 3D-displays,” in Proceedings of 13 European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO, Turkey, 1–4 (2006).
  4. X3D–23” Users’ Manual, NewSight GmbH, Firmensitz Carl-Pulfrich-Str., 1 07745 Jena (2006).
  5. H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Woodgate and J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multiview spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2D/3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijin, “Multi-view 3D Displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154–1157.
  8. O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D-LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-Y. Chen, T.-T. Yang, and W.-S. Sun, “Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15495–15505 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminanceand minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8595–8604 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (John Wiley and Sons, 2001).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

G. J. Woodgate and J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multiview spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2D/3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D-LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bates, R.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Benzie, P.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Clarke, J. A.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Zwart, S. T.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrold, J.

G. J. Woodgate and J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multiview spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2D/3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiddink, M. G. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.-K.

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hopf, K.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-M.

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.

Kim, B.

Kim, J.

Koukoulas, T.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Lee, B.-J.

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Ohm, W.-S.

Rakkolainen, I.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sainov, V.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sexton, I.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Shin, H.-H.

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.-S.

Surman, P.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Urey, H.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D-LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Kopylow, C.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, G. J.

G. J. Woodgate and J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multiview spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2D/3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.-T.

Yang, X.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. (1)

P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

H.-K. Hong, S.-M. Jung, B.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate and J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multiview spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2D/3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, and O. Willemsen, “2D/3D switching displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D-LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Surman, I. Sexton, R. Bates, W. K. Lee, K. Hopf, and T. Koukoulas, “Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 6016, 231–238 (2005).

Other (4)

R. Braspenning, E. Brouwer, and G. de Haan, “Visual quality assessment of lenticular based 3D-displays,” in Proceedings of 13 European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO, Turkey, 1–4 (2006).

X3D–23” Users’ Manual, NewSight GmbH, Firmensitz Carl-Pulfrich-Str., 1 07745 Jena (2006).

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijin, “Multi-view 3D Displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154–1157.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (John Wiley and Sons, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

5-view slanted lenticular sheet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The structure of the proposed multi-view 3D display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of the proposed autostereoscopic display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The switching mechanism of the dynamic light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical system of lenticular display.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The optical simulation using ASAP software.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four views backlight.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a)Schematic overview shows the crosstalk between different views. The light intensity of a pixel in a view roughly has the shape of a gaussian. (b) The light intensity of the configuration with uni-direction diffusion lens plate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photographs of the images: (a) −3° image content, (b) 5° image content, (c) 13° image content, (d) 21° image content.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L : 65 = 2 R : ( d + R ) P : 4 L = ( d + R ) : ( d + 3 R )
sin θ i = L H d 2 + L H 2      , a n d     sin θ γ = L D ( R + 2 R ) 2 + L D 2
L D = ( R + 2 R ) L H n r 2 ( d 2 + L H 2 ) L H 2
C r o s s t a l k R a t i o = L i g h t I n t e n s i t y v i e w ( n ) L i g h t I n t e n s i t y v i e w ( n ) + L i g h t I n t e n s i t y v i e w ( n + 1 ) × 100 [ % ]

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