Abstract

By using the carrier-suppressed single-sideband (CS-SSB) modulation, the Rayleigh backscattering (RB) experienced by the uplink signal can be effectively mitigated due to the reduction of the spectral overlap between the uplink signal and the distributed optical carrier. In this work, we first introduce the theoretical analysis of the CS-SSB generation using the dual-drive MZM (DD-MZM)-based and a dual-parallel MZM (DP-MZM)-based optical networking units (ONUs). Due to the different modulation mechanisms of the two CS-SSB modulations, the frequency components of the generated CS-SSB signals are also different. The transmission performance and the dispersion tolerance of the uplink signals generated by the two CS-SSB modulators are also analyzed and discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 765–776 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Power penalty induced by Rayleigh backscattering in a bidirectional wavelength-reuse lightwave system,” Proc. CLEO (2001) CThL54.
  6. G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1860–1866 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Prat, M. Omella, and V. Polo, “Wavelength shifting for colorless ONUs in single-fiber WDM-PONs,” Proc. OFC (2007), Anaheim, CA, OFE1.
  10. C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4970–4976 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1860–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 765–776 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. K.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. Y.

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4970–4976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1860–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 765–776 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

Hung, W.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacHale, E. K.

Talli, G.

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1860–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 765–776 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. T. K.

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1860–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 765–776 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4970–4976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks,” Electron. Lett. 38(1), 43–45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, L. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Rayleigh backscattering mitigation using wavelength splitting for heterogeneous optical wired and wireless access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1294–1296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (2)

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Power penalty induced by Rayleigh backscattering in a bidirectional wavelength-reuse lightwave system,” Proc. CLEO (2001) CThL54.

J. Prat, M. Omella, and V. Polo, “Wavelength shifting for colorless ONUs in single-fiber WDM-PONs,” Proc. OFC (2007), Anaheim, CA, OFE1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The architectures of the CS-SSB generations using (a) DD-MZM: dual-drive MZM (b) DP-MZM: dual-paralleled MZM. Insets: vector diagrams of (i) DD-MZM; (ii) DP-MZM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed carrier distributed LR-PON using carrier suppressed-single sideband (CS-SSB) modulation. TBF: tuneable bandpass filter, OC: optical circulator, PC: phase shifter. Insets: (i) CS-SSB MOD1; MODa: dual-drive MZM, MODb: single-arm MZM, PS: phase shifter; (ii) CS-SSB MOD2; DP-MZM: dual-paralleled MZM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental optical spectra of CW carrier (carrier-RB) and upstream signal and signal-RB of (a) CS-SSB MOD1, (b) CS-SSB MOD2

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BERs versus received optical power for uplink traffic using the two CS-SSB MODs applied in the proposed architecture with different SMF transmission distances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BERs versus dispersion arising from transmitting in SMF when using the two CS-SSB MODs applied in the proposed architecture with different SMF transmission distances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BER performances of uplink CS-SSB NRZ signals and conventional NRZ signals with different split ratio in the transmission link. Insets show the corresponding eye diagrams.

Equations (5)

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E D D M Z M _ u p p e r ( t ) = Re { 1 2 E 0 e j ( ω 0 t + Δ φ ( t ) ) } = 1 2 E 0 cos ( ω 0 t + Δ φ ( t ) ) = 1 2 E 0 { cos ω 0 t cos Δ φ ( t ) sin ω 0 t sin Δ φ ( t ) } ,
E D D M Z M _ u p p e r ( t ) 1 2 E 0 { J 0 ( m ) cos ω 0 t J 2 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + 2 ω R F t ) + cos ( ω 0 t 2 ω R F t ) ] + J 1 ( m ) [ sin ( ω 0 t + ω R F t ) + sin ( ω 0 t ω R F t ) ] J 3 ( m ) [ sin ( ω 0 t + 3 ω R F t ) + sin ( ω 0 t 3 ω R F t ) ] } .
E D D M Z M _ l o w e r ( t ) 1 2 E 0 { J 0 ( m ) cos ω 0 t + J 2 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + 2 ω R F t ) + cos ( ω 0 t 2 ω R F t ) ] J 1 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + ω R F t ) cos ( ω 0 t ω R F t ) ] J 3 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + 3 ω R F t ) cos ( ω 0 t 3 ω R F t ) ] } .
E M Z M 1 ( t ) 1 2 E 0 { 2 J 1 ( m ) [ sin ( ω 0 t + ω R F t ) + sin ( ω 0 t ω R F t ) ] 2 J 3 ( m ) [ sin ( ω 0 t + 3 ω R F t ) + sin ( ω 0 t 3 ω R F t ) ] } .
E M Z M 2 ( t ) 1 2 E 0 { 2 J 1 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + ω R F t ) cos ( ω 0 t ω R F t ) ] 2 J 3 ( m ) [ cos ( ω 0 t + 3 ω R F t ) cos ( ω 0 t 3 ω R F t ) ] } .

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