Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss asymmetric slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI). 130 and 180 nm wide slots were fabricated with a 248 nm stepper, in 200 nm thick silicon. An asymmetric waveguide design is shown to expand the range in which the TE0 mode is guided and suppress the TE1 mode, while still maintaining a sharp concentration of electric field in the center of the slot. Optical propagation losses of 2 dB/cm or less are shown for asymmetric slot waveguides with 130 nm wide slots and 320 and 100 nm wide arms.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (6)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4752–4757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Anderson, P. A.

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4215–4221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

Bañuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bojko, R.

Bruns, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casquel, R.

Chan, E.

Chen, L.

Ciminelli, C.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Falco, A.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

González-Pedro, V.

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hampe, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hochberg, M.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4215–4221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

Honkanen, S.

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jurich, M.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, A.

Kim, T. D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.-J.

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koshinz, D.

Krauss, T. F.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Krug, W.

Kung, C.-C.

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maquieira, A.

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W. H. P.

Petrov, A.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Robinson, J. T.

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

Säynätjoki, A.

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4215–4221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

Shafiiha, R.

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H. X.

Tervonen, A.

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, W. Krug, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4215–4221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

Wülbern, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

Xiong, X.

Xu, Q. F.

Zhou, X.-H.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143106 (2007).

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

C. Ciminelli, V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sensors (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI saveguides,” Sensors 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

PMMA Resists – Microchem, “MicroChem NANOTM PMMA and Copolymer datasheet,” (MicroChem, 2001). http://www.microchem.com/products/pdf/PMMA_Data_Sheet.pdf .

FemSIM software, RSOFT Design Inc., “RSOFT,” (RSOFT, 2011). http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products.php?sub=Component+Design&itm=FemSIM .

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing 2nd edition, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), Chap. 15.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A Dispersion diagram showing TE0 and TE1 modes for various slot offset amounts of design A. Design A implies a 110 nm slot offset from an initial symmetric design of two 210 nm wide arms and a 130 nm slot resulting in a 130 nm slot with 320 and 100 nm wide arms. The corresponding dispersion curve for design A is shown in red. Adding an offset to the location of the slot extends the guiding range for the TE0 mode greatly, while minimally changing the TE1 cutoff. (b) A similar dispersion diagram for varying degrees of asymmetry of design B (shown in red). (c) A similar dispersion diagram for varying degrees of asymmetry of design C (shown in red).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical mode pattern of reported 130 nm slot waveguide with 320 and 100 nm arm widths (design A). This design implies a slot offset of 110 nm. The electric field intensity, |Ex|, is indicated by the contour colors and is normalized to a total mode power of 1 W. (b) Mode pattern for 130 nm slot with slot offset of 80 nm. (c) Mode pattern for 130 nm slot with slot offset of 50 nm. (d) Mode pattern for 130 nm slot with slot offset of 20 nm. (e) Mode pattern for perfectly symmetric 130 nm slot. χ3 effective area, Aeff, is shown for each geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lithographic process flow. Second partial etch step for unrelated devices, and BAE Systems proprietary resist shrink technique process are not shown: (a) Begin with 220 nm Si on 3 µm SiO2 (b) Deposit 119 nm SiNx hard mask (c) Deposit resist and apply first photolithography step (d) First etch through both hard masks and Si (e) Deposit resist and apply third photolithography step (f) Third etch through both hard masks and Si (g) Oxide layer grown around slot arms (h) Nitride and oxide layer are stripped.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrograph of cleaved end-facet of a typical 130 nm slot waveguide device (top left). Optical micrograph of grating couplers and slot runout sections for three 130 nm slot waveguide devices (bottom left). Layout for a typical set of slot waveguide runouts devices (right). Optical micrograph includes PMMA, which is stripped for electron micrograph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized wavelength sweeps of devices of different lengths of design A on chip 1. A quadratic fit is seen with each device used to determine peak optical transmission. The signal-to-noise ratio for the best performing device is 44 dB. (b) Normalized optical power vs. waveguide length for these devices. Error bars show uncertainty of loss due to grating couplers. A linear regression shows 1.7 ± 1.1 dB/cm propagation loss as seen in Table 1. The linear fit falls well within one standard deviation of all of the data points, suggesting our uncertainty estimation may overstate the true level of statistical variation encountered in each measurement. (c) Normalized optical power vs. waveguide length for a single test of design A, chip 2. A linear regression shows 2.9 ± 0.4 dB/cm propagation loss, within one standard deviation of the mean propagation loss of 2.4 ± 0.9 dB/cm shown in Table 1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Waveguide Propagation Loss for Three Different Waveguide Geometries

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