Abstract

In many time-domain single-photon measurements, wide dynamic range (more than 5 orders of magnitude) is required in short acquisition time (few seconds). We report on the results of a novel technique based on a time-gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) able to increase the dynamic range of optical investigations. The optical signal is acquired only in well-defined time intervals. Very fast 200-ps gate-ON transition is used to avoid the undesired strong signal, which can saturate the detector, hide the fainter useful signal and reduce the dynamic range. In experimental measurements, we obtained a dynamic range approaching 8 decades in few minutes of acquisition.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  2. E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “Imaging molecular interactions in living cells by FRET microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 10(5), 409–416 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. R. Lacowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum Press, 1999).
  4. A. Yodh and B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48(3), 34–40 (1995).
  5. A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  6. A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  7. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  8. Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150(1), 5–8 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  9. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  10. J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  11. B. L. Horecker, “The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infra-red regions,” J. Biol. Chem. 148, 173–183 (1943).
  12. S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  13. W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  14. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  15. A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
  16. M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).
  17. A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).
  18. F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).
  19. D. S. Bethune, R. G. Devoe, C. Kurtsiefer, C. T. Retterner, and W. P. Risk, “System for gated detection of optical pulses containing a small number of photons using an avalanche photodiode,” U.S. Patent 6218657 (2001).
  20. A. Tomita and K. Nakamura, “Balanced, gated-mode photon detector for quantum-bit discrimination at 1550 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1827–1829 (2002).
  21. C. Zhou, G. Wu, and H. P. Zeng, “Multigate single-photon detection and timing discrimination with an InGaAs/lnP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1773–1776 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  22. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
  23. A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).
  24. F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).
  25. S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).
  26. R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(10), 2727–2741 (1994).
  27. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
    [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

2009 (2)

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

2006 (2)

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “Imaging molecular interactions in living cells by FRET microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 10(5), 409–416 (2006).
[PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, and H. P. Zeng, “Multigate single-photon detection and timing discrimination with an InGaAs/lnP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1773–1776 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (4)

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

2002 (2)

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Tomita and K. Nakamura, “Balanced, gated-mode photon detector for quantum-bit discrimination at 1550 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1827–1829 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48(3), 34–40 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150(1), 5–8 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

1943 (1)

B. L. Horecker, “The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infra-red regions,” J. Biol. Chem. 148, 173–183 (1943).

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

Contini, D.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

Cova, S.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).

Cubeddu, R.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

Dalla Mora, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

Feng, T. C.

Gadella, T. W. J.

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[PubMed]

Gulinatti, A.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

Haskell, R. C.

Horecker, B. L.

B. L. Horecker, “The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infra-red regions,” J. Biol. Chem. 148, 173–183 (1943).

Hoshi, Y.

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150(1), 5–8 (1993).
[PubMed]

Jares-Erijman, E. A.

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “Imaging molecular interactions in living cells by FRET microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 10(5), 409–416 (2006).
[PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “Imaging molecular interactions in living cells by FRET microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 10(5), 409–416 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kardynal, B. E.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Lacaita, A.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).

Maccagnani, P.

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

Martelli, F.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

Nakamura, K.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Obrig, H.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

Rech, I.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

Rinneberg, H.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ripamonti, G.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Samori, C.

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Spinelli, L.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Tamura, M.

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150(1), 5–8 (1993).
[PubMed]

Tisa, S.

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

Tomita, A.

Torricelli, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tosi, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T. T.

van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

van Munster, E. B.

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Villringer, A.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

Wu, G.

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48(3), 34–40 (1995).

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Zaccanti, G.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zappa, F.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[PubMed]

Zeng, H. P.

Zhou, C.

Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. (1)

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “Imaging molecular interactions in living cells by FRET microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 10(5), 409–416 (2006).
[PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Gulinatti, P. Maccagnani, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diodes,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 272–274 (2005).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “Trapping phenomena in avalanche photodiodes on nanosecond scale,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12(12), 685–687 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 852–862 (2007).

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

B. L. Horecker, “The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infra-red regions,” J. Biol. Chem. 148, 173–183 (1943).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diodes for the near-infrared range: detector and circuit issues,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 299–308 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (1)

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150(1), 5–8 (1993).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[PubMed]

S. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Penetration depth of light re-emitted by a diffusive medium: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4131–4144 (2002).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48(3), 34–40 (1995).

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. Cova, “InGaAs SPAD and electronics for low time jitter and low noise,” Proc. SPIE 6583, 65830E, 65830E–12 (2007).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

F. Zappa, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, and S. Tisa, “SPICE modeling of single photon avalanche diodes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 153(2), 197–204 (2009).

Other (3)

D. S. Bethune, R. G. Devoe, C. Kurtsiefer, C. T. Retterner, and W. P. Risk, “System for gated detection of optical pulses containing a small number of photons using an avalanche photodiode,” U.S. Patent 6218657 (2001).

W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

J. R. Lacowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum Press, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Left) Schematic representation of the two contributions to photon absorption, either within the high-field depleted region or in the neutral (small electric field) region of the active volume. (Right) Typical SPAD response to a narrow (10 ps FWHM) laser pulse. A photon absorbed in the neutral regions generates an electron-hole pair that slowly and randomly diffuses before the electron reaches the depleted region, thus contributing to the exponential tail decay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the method used for reconstructing a curve with high dynamic range by dividing it in many slices and by progressively increasing the optical power for improving the signal-to-noise ratio along the tail.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Improved instrumentation for photon migration measurements based on fast-gated SPAD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Left) Some of the 201 acquisitions obtained by delaying the gate window with respect to the laser pulse. (Right) Reconstructed IRF of the fast-gated SPAD1 setup at 900 nm. A wide dynamic range of more than 7 orders of magnitude is obtained in this measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IRFs of SPAD1 operated in fast gated-mode, measured at different wavelengths between 600 nm and 1100 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IRF of SPAD2 measured at 700 nm in fast gated-mode (solid line) and comparison with SPAD1 response (dots).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IRFs acquired with a standard non-gated TCSPC approach with different integration times (solid lines) from 1 s to 104 s (i.e. about 3 hours) compared with the IRF reconstructed by means of fast gated-mode technique (dotted line), acquired in just 17 minutes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulations of IRF shape measurements with different integration times without (left) and with background subtraction (right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

IRF and reflectance curves acquired at null source-detector separation with a fast-gated SPAD1 instrumentation (solid lines) and comparison with simulated IRFs of a non-gated instrument (dots) for two different measurement times: 105 s (left) and 108 s (right).

Metrics