Abstract

In this work we experimentally demonstrate laser erasable germanium implanted Bragg gratings in SOI. Bragg gratings are formed in a silicon waveguide by ion implantation induced amorphization, and are subsequently erased by a contained laser thermal treatment process. An extinction ratio up to 24dB has been demonstrated in transmission for the fabricated implanted Bragg gratings with lengths up to 1000µm. Results are also presented, demonstrating that the gratings can be selectively removed by UV pulsed laser annealing, enabling a new concept of laser erasable devices for integrated photonics.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (1)

R. Delmdahl, “The excimer laser: precision engineering,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 286–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Homampour, M. P. Bulk, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Thermal tuning of planar Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S1), S240–S243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. D. T. Adikaari, N. K. Mudugamuwa, and S. R. P. Silva, “Nanocrystalline silicon solar cells from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(6), 634–638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Pelaz, L. A. Marques, and J. Barbolla, “Ion-beam-induced amorphization and recrystallization in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 5947–5976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Hobler and G. Otto, “Status and open problems in modeling of as-implanted damage in silicon,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 6(1-3), 1–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1973 (1)

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Adikaari, A. A. D. T.

A. A. D. T. Adikaari, N. K. Mudugamuwa, and S. R. P. Silva, “Nanocrystalline silicon solar cells from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(6), 634–638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arstila, K.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, E. C.

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Barbolla, J.

L. Pelaz, L. A. Marques, and J. Barbolla, “Ion-beam-induced amorphization and recrystallization in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 5947–5976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barradas, N. P.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Battistig, G.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, M.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bulk, M. P.

S. Homampour, M. P. Bulk, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Thermal tuning of planar Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S1), S240–S243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Coleman, P. G.

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Dood, M. J. A.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delmdahl, R.

R. Delmdahl, “The excimer laser: precision engineering,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 286–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dudeck, K. J.

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dytlewski, N.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. Y.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, V. M.

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Haibullin, I. B.

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. T.

Hobler, G.

G. Hobler and G. Otto, “Status and open problems in modeling of as-implanted damage in silicon,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 6(1-3), 1–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofrichter, J.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Homampour, S.

S. Homampour, M. P. Bulk, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Thermal tuning of planar Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S1), S240–S243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

S. Homampour, M. P. Bulk, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Thermal tuning of planar Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S1), S240–S243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Jeynes, C.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

S. Homampour, M. P. Bulk, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Thermal tuning of planar Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S1), S240–S243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kotai, E.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, R.

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Lulli, G.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marques, L. A.

L. Pelaz, L. A. Marques, and J. Barbolla, “Ion-beam-induced amorphization and recrystallization in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 5947–5976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martynenko, Y. V.

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Mayer, M.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mollenhauer, T.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mudugamuwa, N. K.

A. A. D. T. Adikaari, N. K. Mudugamuwa, and S. R. P. Silva, “Nanocrystalline silicon solar cells from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(6), 634–638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Offrein, B. J.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, G.

G. Hobler and G. Otto, “Status and open problems in modeling of as-implanted damage in silicon,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 6(1-3), 1–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pelaz, L.

L. Pelaz, L. A. Marques, and J. Barbolla, “Ion-beam-induced amorphization and recrystallization in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 5947–5976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramdas, A. K.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rauhala, E.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Schonenberger, S.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. R. P.

A. A. D. T. Adikaari, N. K. Mudugamuwa, and S. R. P. Silva, “Nanocrystalline silicon solar cells from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(6), 634–638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Starinin, C. V.

E. C. Baranova, V. M. Gusev, Y. V. Martynenko, C. V. Starinin, and I. B. Haibullin, “On silicon amorphization during different mass ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. 18(1), 21–26 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Szilagyi, E.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M.

N. P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, and M. Thompson, “International atomic energy agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 281–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van der Drift, E. W. J. M.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

J. Bolten, J. Hofrichter, N. Moll, S. Schonenberger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, and H. Kurz, “CMOS compatible cost-efficient fabrication of SOI grating couplers,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1114–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walters, W. D.

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waugh, P.

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Zijlstra, T.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

M. P. Bulk, A. P. Knights, P. E. Jessop, P. Waugh, R. Loiacono, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 276165 (2008).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. P. Knights, K. J. Dudeck, W. D. Walters, and P. G. Coleman, “Modification of silicon waveguide structures using ion implantation induced defects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(1), 75–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. Van der Drift, “Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 649 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Pelaz, L. A. Marques, and J. Barbolla, “Ion-beam-induced amorphization and recrystallization in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 5947–5976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the masking and implantation process: A silicon dioxide hardmask is first deposited on an SOI wafer and the grating template is patterned on it and etched. After this the patterned surface is implanted in order to produce a refractive index change in the exposed region. The grating hardmask can be subsequently removed. A rib waveguide is patterned over the implanted region in order to complete device. The refractive index change induced by ion implantation can be reversed by an appropriate local annealing treatment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index measurements for the Ge calibration implants in silicon and grating performance measurements: (a) Ellipsometry results are shown for germanium test implants with 1015ions/cm2 dose, energies of 30keV and 70keV and low temperatures and room temperatures conditions. A refractive index change of approximately 0.5 has been measured in Si samples implanted with Ge ions, showing little difference between each implant. The inset shows reference refractive index for an unimplanted silicon sample. (b) SEM cross section of the fabricated rib waveguide, the SEM top view of an implanted waveguide is shown in the figure inset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Longitudinal cross section of an implanted grating analyzed by TEM imaging: Implanted amorphous pockets are visible near the waveguide surface in Fig. 4(a). Figure 4(b) shows a TEM image of the longitudinal cross section of a laser annealed grating. Complete recrystallisation of the amorphous grating is observed, however the expected “end of range” damage due to the presence of excess Si interstitials is still evident in the amorphous crystalline transition regions. This region is only 48 nm thick.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Implanted gratings performance analysis: Implanted Bragg gratings tested in transmission exhibited an extinction ratio of 2.7dB for the 100µm devices, and up to 24dB for the 1000µm devices, showing repeatability within ± 2dB across 15 devices fabricated with the same design. The gratings display a FWHM bandwidth of 2.16nm for the 100μm, reaching 0.91nm for the 1000μm devices. The corresponding simulated extinction ratio and grating bandwidth are also reported for comparison. The measured extinction ratio corresponds to an average coupling constant of 62 ± 10cm−1 for the analyzed devices, demonstrating a grating efficiency comparable to that of etched gratings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured grating extinction ratio in transmission for as-implanted and laser annealed devices: Grating frequency response has been measured before and after laser annealing treatment. Figure 4(a) shows the frequency response in transmission obtained for a 200µm long implanted device. Figure 4(b) shows the transmitted response for a 600µm long device and Fig. 4(c) shows the frequency response of a 1000µm long device. For each data set the remeasured device response is also shown after laser annealing treatment at 278 mJ/cm2, demonstrating that implanted gratings are completely erased.

Equations (1)

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κ = k 0 4 n e f f g r a t i n g sin ( m π D C ) Δ n 2 E 2 d x d y w a v e g u i d e E 2 d x d y

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