Abstract

We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) over 100 km using single-photon detectors based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We implemented the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) protocol with electrically cooled and 2-GHz sinusoidally gated APDs. The single-photon detector has a dark count probability of 2.8×10−8 (55 counts per second) with a detection efficiency of 6 %, which enabled us to achieve 24 kbit/s secure key rate over 100 km of optical fiber. The DPS-QKD system offers better performances in a practical way than those achieved using superconducting single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distance that secure keys against the general individual attacks can be distributed has been extended to 160 km.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “Ultra-low-noise sinusoidally gated avalanche photodiode for high-speed single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 529–531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mirza and F. Petruccione, “Realizing long-term quantum cryptography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), A185–A188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wen, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Unconditional security of single-photon differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(17), 170503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue and Y. Iwai, “Differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 022319 (2009)
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Curty, L. L. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7(5–6), 665–688 (2007).

T. Tsurumaru, “Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, S. Odate, and H. Tsuchida, “Discharge pulse counting for low-noise single-photon detection at 1550 nm using InGaAs avalanche photodiode cooled to 130 K,” Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 46(1), 220–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz Single-Photon Detection at 1550-nm Using an InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiode Operated with a Sine Wave Gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9), 1381–1398 (2004).

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, D. Stucki, N. Brunner, and V. Scarani, “Towards practical and fast quantum cryptography,” arXiv:quant-ph/0411022 (2004).

D. Gottesman, H. K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 325–360 (2004).

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3762–3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2797–2799 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Tomita and K. Nakamura, “Balanced, gated-mode photon detector for quantum-bit discrimination at 1550 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1827–1829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(3), 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “Ultra-low-noise sinusoidally gated avalanche photodiode for high-speed single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 529–531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Barreiro, C.

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Michael, R.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, C. H.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public-key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing1984, 175–179 (1984).

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public-key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing1984, 175–179 (1984).

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, in Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT’93 edited by T. Hellseth, Lecture Notes in Computer Science765 (Springer), 410–423 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, N.

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, D. Stucki, N. Brunner, and V. Scarani, “Towards practical and fast quantum cryptography,” arXiv:quant-ph/0411022 (2004).

Chen, K.

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chulkova, G.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curty, M.

M. Curty, L. L. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7(5–6), 665–688 (2007).

Debuisschert, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dianati, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fasel, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fossier, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frst, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, G.

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gautier, J.-D..

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gay, O.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, D. Stucki, N. Brunner, and V. Scarani, “Towards practical and fast quantum cryptography,” arXiv:quant-ph/0411022 (2004).

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9), 1381–1398 (2004).

Gobby, C.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3762–3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goltsman, G. N.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, H. K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 325–360 (2004).

Grangier, P.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9), 1381–1398 (2004).

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Happe, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasani, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hbel, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Kamada, M. Asobe, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, and H. Miyazawa, “Efficient and low-noise single-photon detection in 1550 nm communication band by frequency upconversion in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 639–641 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2797–2799 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-F.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Humer, G.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and Y. Iwai, “Differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 022319 (2009)
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2797–2799 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(3), 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, S.

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “Ultra-low-noise sinusoidally gated avalanche photodiode for high-speed single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 529–531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz Single-Photon Detection at 1550-nm Using an InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiode Operated with a Sine Wave Gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ispasoiu, R.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzler, M. A.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, Y.

K. Inoue and Y. Iwai, “Differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 022319 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Kardynal, B. E.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kouminov, P.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Legr, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lieger, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lnger, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. K.

M. Curty, L. L. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7(5–6), 665–688 (2007).

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gottesman, H. K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 325–360 (2004).

Lo, W.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lodewyck, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lornser, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ltkenhaus, N.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutkenhaus, N.

M. Curty, L. L. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7(5–6), 665–688 (2007).

D. Gottesman, H. K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 325–360 (2004).

Ma, X.

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, W.

Marhold, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matvienko, V.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matyus, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maurhart, O.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Mirza, A.

Miyazawa, H.

Monat, L.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Nam, S. W.

Nambu, Y.

Namekata, N.

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “Ultra-low-noise sinusoidally gated avalanche photodiode for high-speed single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 529–531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz Single-Photon Detection at 1550-nm Using an InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiode Operated with a Sine Wave Gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nauerth, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Odate, S.

A. Yoshizawa, S. Odate, and H. Tsuchida, “Discharge pulse counting for low-noise single-photon detection at 1550 nm using InGaAs avalanche photodiode cooled to 130 K,” Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 46(1), 220–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pacher, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Page, J.-B.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peev, M.

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A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
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D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Tosi, A.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trinkler, P.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa, S. Odate, and H. Tsuchida, “Discharge pulse counting for low-noise single-photon detection at 1550 nm using InGaAs avalanche photodiode cooled to 130 K,” Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 46(1), 220–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsurumaru, T.

T. Tsurumaru, “Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tualle-Brouri, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanne, F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(3), 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walenta, N.

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wegmuller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9), 1381–1398 (2004).

Weier, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K.

K. Wen, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Unconditional security of single-photon differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(17), 170503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilsher, K.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wimberger, I.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Wen, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Unconditional security of single-photon differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(17), 170503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(3), 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

Yoshino, K.

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, S. Odate, and H. Tsuchida, “Discharge pulse counting for low-noise single-photon detection at 1550 nm using InGaAs avalanche photodiode cooled to 130 K,” Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 46(1), 220–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3762–3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, C.-F. Hsu, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, S. Cova, F. Zappa, and R. Ispasoiu, “Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for 1.5 μm photon counting applications,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 283–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, D. Stucki, N. Brunner, and V. Scarani, “Towards practical and fast quantum cryptography,” arXiv:quant-ph/0411022 (2004).

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9), 1381–1398 (2004).

Zeilinger, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Allaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Frst, J.-D.. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hbel, G. Humer, T. Lnger, M. Legr, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lornser, N. Ltkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel1, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vanne, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” N. J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. L.

M. Curty, L. L. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7(5–6), 665–688 (2007).

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3762–3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and Roman Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

arXiv:quant-ph/0411022

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors based on 2-GHz sinusoidally gated In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. SMF, single-mode fiber; PC, Peltier cooler; GPQC, gated passive quenching circuit; BEF, band elimination filter; B-AMP, 3-GHz bandwidth low-noise amplifier; LPF, low pass filter; CMP, comparator circuit. Avalanche signals were distilled, amplified and discriminated at each filter circuit (FL-1 and FL-2). FL-2 is identical with FL-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the differential phase shift quantum key distribution. EAM, electro-absorption modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; LN-IM, LiNbO3 intensity modulator; PM, phase modulator; VATT, variable attenuator; PPG, pulse pattern generator; DTG, data timing generator; MZI-PLC, Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a planar lightwave circuit; TIA, time interval analyzer; SG-APD 1, 2, sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of the detected signal. Statistics of time-instances when photons were detected at (a) SG-APD 1 and (b) SG-APD 2 for a fixed phase modulation pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Secure key rate as function of the communication distance. The open, closed circles and closed square show the experimental results of the sifted key rates, secure key rates and bit error rates, respectively. The theoretical curves are also plotted simultaneously, where we assumed the conditions that ηd = 6.0 %, Pd = 5.0 × 10−8, eb = 1.0 %, Pab =2.0 %, ηtw = 92 %, and a fiber loss of 0.21 dB/km.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Single-Photon Detectors, *10 ps Time Window (TW) was Applied to Improve the Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Equations (4)

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R sifted = ν ( μ T + 2 P d ) exp ( ν μ T t d 2 )
e ( e b + η tw P ab / 2 ) p click + η tw P d p click ,
R secure = R sifted [ { 1 2 μ } log 2 { 1 e 2 ( 1 6 e ) 2 2 } + f ( e ) h ( e ) ] .
h ( e ) = e log 2 e + ( 1 e ) log 2 ( 1 e )

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