Abstract

We have constructed a pulsed THz imaging system based on the triangulation method. The system is capable of stand-off measurements, especially of retrieving the refractive index in a non-tactile manner even if the thickness of the object is unknown. The distance between emitter and imaged object for the presented measurements was 1.3m. We have measured a variety of samples in order to determine the capabilities and to optimize the optical properties of the instrument.

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    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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2010

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chen, D.-J. Lee, T. Pollock, and J. F. Whitaker, “Pulsed-terahertz reflectometry for health monitoring of ceramic thermal barrier coatings,” Opt. Express 18, 3477–3486 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. Liu, K. Su, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. B. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Video-rate terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3788–3795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Jonuscheit and R. Beigang, eds., Standoff Identification of Concealed Explosives Under Real-World Conditions (SPIE Newsroom, 2009).

C. Wiegand, M. Herrmann, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigangeds., “Scattering of THz waves at rough surfaces and its influence on spectral identification,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology Proceedings (2009).

2008

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “THz Triangulation,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology , OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME7.

S. Islam, M. Herrmann, and R. Beigang, “A THz triangulation and imaging system and its applications,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 498–499.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “Refractive index measurement with a THz triangulator and radar,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 762–763.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Optronics 287, 165–172 (2005).

2004

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

1998

K. B. Smith and Y. F. Zheng, “Accuracy analysis of point laser triangulation probes using simulation,” J. Manuf. Sci. E. 120, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids , Vol. 74 of Topics in Applied Physics, G. Grüner, ed. (Springer Berlin, 1998), pp. 7–50. 10.1007/BFb0103419.
[CrossRef]

1997

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904–906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Hartley and P. Sturm, “Triangulation,” in Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns , Vol. 970 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, V. Hlavác and R. Šára, eds. (Springer Berlin, 1995), pp. 190–197.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1990

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975

D. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D.

D. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

Beigang, R.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “Refractive index measurement with a THz triangulator and radar,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 762–763.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “THz Triangulation,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology , OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME7.

S. Islam, M. Herrmann, and R. Beigang, “A THz triangulation and imaging system and its applications,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 498–499.

Boivin, L.

Böttger, U.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Buron, J. D.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dall, J.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dikmelik, Y.

Dorsch, R. G.

Eichhorn, F.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Federici, J. F.

Z. Liu, K. Su, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. B. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Video-rate terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3788–3795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

Fukasawa, R.

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, C. W.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D. E.

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, R.

R. Hartley and P. Sturm, “Triangulation,” in Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns , Vol. 970 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, V. Hlavác and R. Šára, eds. (Springer Berlin, 1995), pp. 190–197.

Häusler, G.

Herrmann, J. M.

Herrmann, M.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “Refractive index measurement with a THz triangulator and radar,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 762–763.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “THz Triangulation,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology , OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME7.

S. Islam, M. Herrmann, and R. Beigang, “A THz triangulation and imaging system and its applications,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 498–499.

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubers, H.-W.

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Hunsche, S.

Islam, S.

S. Islam, M. Herrmann, and R. Beigang, “A THz triangulation and imaging system and its applications,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 498–499.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “THz Triangulation,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology , OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME7.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “Refractive index measurement with a THz triangulator and radar,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 762–763.

Jensen, T.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krozer, V.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kusk, A.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-J.

Lee, J. S.

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-B.

Liu, Z.

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

Mittleman, D. M.

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids , Vol. 74 of Topics in Applied Physics, G. Grüner, ed. (Springer Berlin, 1998), pp. 7–50. 10.1007/BFb0103419.
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, R. K.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, J.

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids , Vol. 74 of Topics in Applied Physics, G. Grüner, ed. (Springer Berlin, 1998), pp. 7–50. 10.1007/BFb0103419.
[CrossRef]

Ortolani, M.

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

Pollock, T.

Richter, H.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Sakai, K.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schade, U.

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

Smith, K. B.

K. B. Smith and Y. F. Zheng, “Accuracy analysis of point laser triangulation probes using simulation,” J. Manuf. Sci. E. 120, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Sturm, P.

R. Hartley and P. Sturm, “Triangulation,” in Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns , Vol. 970 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, V. Hlavác and R. Šára, eds. (Springer Berlin, 1995), pp. 190–197.

Su, K.

Sun, F.

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Optronics 287, 165–172 (2005).

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

Wiegand, C.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wohnsiedler, S.

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yonera, T.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. F.

K. B. Smith and Y. F. Zheng, “Accuracy analysis of point laser triangulation probes using simulation,” J. Manuf. Sci. E. 120, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhurbenko, V.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl, Phys. Lett.

D. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortolani, J. S. Lee, U. Schade, and H.-W. Hubers, “Surface roughness effects on the terahertz reflectance of pure explosive materials,” Appl, Phys. Lett. 93, 081906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X.-C. Zhang, “A phase feature extraction technique for terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221106–221108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

V. Krozer, T. Löffler, J. Dall, A. Kusk, F. Eichhorn, R. K. Olsson, J. D. Buron, P. U. Jepsen, V. Zhurbenko, and T. Jensen, “Terahertz imaging systems with aperture synthesis techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 2027–2039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Herrmann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, and R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Manuf. Sci. E.

K. B. Smith and Y. F. Zheng, “Accuracy analysis of point laser triangulation probes using simulation,” J. Manuf. Sci. E. 120, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489–L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optical Terahertz Science and Technology Proceedings

C. Wiegand, M. Herrmann, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigangeds., “Scattering of THz waves at rough surfaces and its influence on spectral identification,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology Proceedings (2009).

Optronics

M. Tonouchi, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Optronics 287, 165–172 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Herrmann, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Wiegand, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Terahertz standoff identification: influence of environment and sample properties,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 731105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Tech.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99)

Z. Jiang, F. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” in Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’99) (1999), pp. 163.
[CrossRef]

The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics

S. Islam, M. Herrmann, and R. Beigang, “A THz triangulation and imaging system and its applications,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 498–499.

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “Refractive index measurement with a THz triangulator and radar,” in The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (2007), pp. 762–763.

Other

M. Herrmann, S. Islam, and R. Beigang, “THz Triangulation,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology , OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME7.

A. Semenov, H. Richter, U. Böttger, A. Smirnov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Imaging THz radar for security applications,” in ARP ’07 The Fourth IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation , J. Yao, ed. (ACTA Press Anaheim, 2007), pp. 63–68.

J. Jonuscheit and R. Beigang, eds., Standoff Identification of Concealed Explosives Under Real-World Conditions (SPIE Newsroom, 2009).

M. Nuss and J. Orenstein, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids , Vol. 74 of Topics in Applied Physics, G. Grüner, ed. (Springer Berlin, 1998), pp. 7–50. 10.1007/BFb0103419.
[CrossRef]

R. Hartley and P. Sturm, “Triangulation,” in Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns , Vol. 970 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, V. Hlavác and R. Šára, eds. (Springer Berlin, 1995), pp. 190–197.

C. Robiné, “Terahertz-Reflexionsspektroskopie rauer Oberflächen und Aufbau eines transportablen THz-TDS-Systems,” Master’s thesis (University of Kaiserslautern, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Triangulation method. (b) Triangulation method using THz radiation. The dimensions cΔt, φ, θ and b are illustrated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the complete THz triangulation instrument.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz signal reflected from a smooth metallic mirror (black arrow) and two differently rough surfaces (blue and red arrows). The main-pulse delay time differs since the positions of the front surfaces change from measurement to measurement due to slightly different holders. (b) Spatially resolved measurement of a THz point source on the sample mirror. The diameter of the measured THz spot correspinds to a possible resolution of approximately 1.5cm at sample position.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sample designed to verify the resolution of the system. One stripe from the center was removed and reattached on the right-hand side. (b) Black line: THz amplitude with a uniform grating pattern. Red line: THz amplitude with a discontinuous grating pattern as described before. The dislocation can be clearly seen in the THz signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Step-shaped object to verify the triangulation capabilities. The incident and reflected THz paths are indicated as well as a scale. (b) THz triangulation signal (brightness) along the sensor (vertical axis) for various sample positions (horizontal axis) at the time of the respective THz pulse maximum. The vertical shift of maximum brightness from the left to the right side corresponds to the thickness of the step. (c) THz waveforms for various sample positions (horizontal axis), the THz electric field is encoded as brightness along the delay time (vertical axis). The sensor position here was chosen to generate a maximum waveform amplitude. The shift of maximum brightness from the left to the right side corresponds to the change in pulse arrival time caused by the step.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

THz time traces of the radar part of the system as well as THz spot displacement on sensor area due to the applied triangulation method.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b = 2 d cos θ sin θ cos φ
c Δ t = 2 d cos θ ( n sin θ sin φ )
c Δ t = b sin θ cos φ ( n sin θ sin φ ) = 2 n b 2 sin φ cos φ ( n sin φ sin φ / n ) = 2 b sin 2 φ ( n 2 sin 2 φ ) n 2 = c Δ t 2 b sin 2 φ + sin 2 φ
c Δ t = 2 n d cos θ ( 1 sin θ sin θ ) = 2 n d cos θ b c Δ t = 4 n d 2 sin θ cos φ = 2 d 2 sin 2 φ d 2 = b c Δ t 2 sin 2 φ

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