Abstract

We report an efficient intracavity XUV output coupler based on an anti-reflection-coated grazing incidence plate (GIP). Conceptually, GIP is an extension of a Brewster plate, affording low loss of the circulating fundamental light and serving as a highly efficient, extremely broadband output coupler for XUV. Due to the grazing incidence geometry, the short wavelength reflectivity can be extended to the keV range. The first GIP realized shows parameters close to the design. We discuss both the limitations of the GIP in comparison with other XUV output couplers and the applicability of the GIP extension at longer wavelengths, down to the MIR.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1672–1678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1980 (1)

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziedzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

Amotchkina, T. V.

Andersen, T. V.

Apolonski, A.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziedzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

Batteiger, V.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellum, J.

A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, J. Bellum, R. Schuster, and D. Collier, “Nanosecond 1064nm damage thresholds for bare and anti-reflection coated silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, B.

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziedzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collier, D.

A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, J. Bellum, R. Schuster, and D. Collier, “Nanosecond 1064nm damage thresholds for bare and anti-reflection coated silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Do, B. T.

A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, J. Bellum, R. Schuster, and D. Collier, “Nanosecond 1064nm damage thresholds for bare and anti-reflection coated silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Duan, X.-M.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziedzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Evans, C.

Ferencz, K.

Fill, E.

Fuchs, H.-J.

Gabler, T.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, C.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotlibovych, I.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanf, S.

Hänsch, T.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Herrmann, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jentschura, U.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Kan, C.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaster, J.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kley, E.-B.

Kling, M. F.

Knünz, S.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolachevsky, N.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koppitsch, R.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kottmann, F.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1954–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, Th. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Chirped multilayer coatings for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehr, D.

Leibfried, D.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

Moll, K. D.

Ozawa, A.

Potma, E. O.

Pupeza, I.

Rauschenberger, J.

Saathoff, G.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Schneider, W.

Schnürer, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schüssler, H.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. Schüssler, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent XUV spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, R.

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A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, J. Bellum, R. Schuster, and D. Collier, “Nanosecond 1064nm damage thresholds for bare and anti-reflection coated silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321T (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a): Brewster plate (1) inside the ring enhancement cavity (shown, only 2 concave mirrors M1, M2 of the cavity). In this case α is equal to the Brewster angle affording lowest losses for circulating DF of p-polarized light. In one of the foci of the cavity (HHG focus), a gas medium (usually a jet) is placed for generating harmonics of DF. Then, XUV and DF co-propagate towards the Brewster plate, where XUV becomes partially reflected out of the cavity whereas DF propagates through the plate without losses and beam distortion. (b): The reflectivity of sapphire (black curve) and fused silica (red curve) plates for p-polarized XUV radiation at the Brewster angle of incidence for 1 µm radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a): schematic of the GIP. HH: high harmonics, DF: driving field. (b): Reflectivity of the s-polarized 1030 nm wavelength from fused silica at different angles of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spectral reflectivity of SiO2 for s-polarized XUV radiation at 75°, 80°, 85° angles of incidence. The optical constants were taken from [13].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of the designed AR coating for different angles of incidence. The AR coating was optimized for 75°. The transmission is shown for one side of the two-side coated substrate. The shaded areas correspond to the spectral width of 1 ps and 100 fs pulses and show the general tendency of the reduced average reflection for shorter pulses. The inset shows a multilayer structure of the AR coating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the measured XUV reflectivity and that calculated at 75°, 80° angles of incidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured and calculated angle reflectivities of SiO2 for s-polarized 13 nm and 30 nm XUV radiation.

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