Abstract

A fiber-optic anemometer based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented. A short section of cobalt-doped fiber was utilized to make a fiber-based “hot wire” for wind speed measurement. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were fabricated in the cobalt-doped fiber using 193 nm laser pulses to serve as localized temperature sensors. A miniature all-optical fiber anemometer is constructed by using two FBGs to determine the dynamic thermal equilibrium between the laser heating and air flow cooling through monitoring the FBGs’ central wavelengths. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted through the power of pump laser or the coating on the FBG. Experimental results reveal that the proposed FBG-based anemometer exhibits very good performance for wind speed measurement. The resolution of the FBG-based anemometer is about 0.012 m/s for wind speed range between 2.0 m/s and 8.0 m/s.

© 2011 OSA

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2007 (3)

2006 (2)

D. W. Lamb and A. Hooper, “Laser-optical fiber Bragg grating anemometer for measuring gas flows: application to measuring the electric wind,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1035–1037 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Takashima, H. Asanuma, and H. Niitsuma, “A water flowmeter using dual fiber Bragg grating sensors and cross-correlation technique,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 116(1), 66–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1897–1899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. D. Byrne, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “A Bragg grating based fibre optic reference beam laser Doppler anemometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 909–913 (2001).

2000 (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Takagi, “A hot-wire anemometer compensated for ambient temperature variations,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 19(9), 739–743 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

Asanuma, H.

S. Takashima, H. Asanuma, and H. Niitsuma, “A water flowmeter using dual fiber Bragg grating sensors and cross-correlation technique,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 116(1), 66–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattarai, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buric, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, G. D.

G. D. Byrne, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “A Bragg grating based fibre optic reference beam laser Doppler anemometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 909–913 (2001).

Caldas, P.

Cashdollar, L. J.

K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1897–1899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. H.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1897–1899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. K.

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. H.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. F.

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazão, O.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, A.

James, S. W.

G. D. Byrne, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “A Bragg grating based fibre optic reference beam laser Doppler anemometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 909–913 (2001).

Jewart, C.

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H. Z.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulishov, M.

Lamb, D. W.

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maklad, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, B.

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niitsuma, H.

S. Takashima, H. Asanuma, and H. Niitsuma, “A water flowmeter using dual fiber Bragg grating sensors and cross-correlation technique,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 116(1), 66–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Shao, L. Y.

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

Stieglmeier, M.

Swinehart, P. R.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

S. Takagi, “A hot-wire anemometer compensated for ambient temperature variations,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 19(9), 739–743 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, S.

S. Takashima, H. Asanuma, and H. Niitsuma, “A water flowmeter using dual fiber Bragg grating sensors and cross-correlation technique,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 116(1), 66–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

G. D. Byrne, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “A Bragg grating based fibre optic reference beam laser Doppler anemometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 909–913 (2001).

Tropea, C.

Wang, W. C.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1897–1899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. M.

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, C. Jewart, M. Buric, K. P. Chen, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Fiber Bragg grating vacuum sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, H. Z. Jia, J. M. Yu, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel Hi-Bi optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 221–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 255–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1897–1899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Takagi, “A hot-wire anemometer compensated for ambient temperature variations,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 19(9), 739–743 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. D. Byrne, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “A Bragg grating based fibre optic reference beam laser Doppler anemometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 909–913 (2001).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (2)

C. Jewart, B. McMillen, S. K. Cho, and K. P. Chen, “X-probe flow sensor using self-powered active fiber Bragg gratings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 127(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takashima, H. Asanuma, and H. Niitsuma, “A water flowmeter using dual fiber Bragg grating sensors and cross-correlation technique,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 116(1), 66–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “Fiber Bragg grating technologies and applications in sensors,” 2006 OSA/OFC, 2415–2417 (2006).

H. H. Bruun, Hot-Wire Anemometry: Principles and Signal Analysis (Oxford University Press, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram and work principle of the all-optical fiber anemometer based on laser-heated fiber Bragg gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission and reflection spectra of the R-FBG and S-FBG (a) and the temperature dependences of the central wavelengths of the two FBGs (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection spectra (a) and central wavelengths (b) of the LHFBGs with increasing power of the 1480 nm pump laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The schematic diagram of the setup for test of the LHFBG anemometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured central wavelengths versus wind speed of the FBG-based anemometer under different pumping powers. The solid curves are fitted by using the derived equation. (a) S-FBG without coating; (b) Recoated S-FBG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effective sensitivities of the recoated and naked anemometers at different pump powers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamic responses of the LHFBG anemometer pumped at different power levels: (a) pump power is 98 mW; (b) pump power is 218 mW; (c) response time versus wind speed.

Equations (5)

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H l o s s = [ T a ( v ) T e ] ( A + B v ) ,
H l o s s = P i n p u t ( 1 a r ) a s ,
Δ λ / λ h 0 = ( α + ξ ) Δ T ,
Δ λ = λ h 0 ( α + ξ ) [ H l o s s / ( A + B v ) Δ T 0 ] ,
λ ( v ) λ e 0 = λ h 0 ( α + ξ ) H l o s s / ( A + B v ) ,

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