Abstract

Strain in the semiconductor light emitting layers has profound effect on the energy band structure and the optical properties of the light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of GaN nanorod LED arrays. We found that the choice of nanorod passivation materials results in the variation of strain in the InGaN/GaN quantum wells, and thus the corresponding change of light emission properties. The results were further investigated by performing Raman measurement to understand the strain of nanorods with different passivation materials and by calculating the optical transition energy of the devices under the influence of strain-induced deformation potential and the piezoelectric polarization field.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).
  5. M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C. T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. R. Wu and J. Singh, “Polar heterostructure for multifunction devices theoretical studies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 52(2), 284–293 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. S. Barker and M. Ilegems, “Infrared lattice vibrations and free-electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C. T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu and J. Singh, “Polar heterostructure for multifunction devices theoretical studies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 52(2), 284–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. S. Barker and M. Ilegems, “Infrared lattice vibrations and free-electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amaro, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker and M. Ilegems, “Infrared lattice vibrations and free-electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bykhovski, A. D.

A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calarco, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. J.

Chao, C. L.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, H. H.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Chen, L. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. T.

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhajed, S.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H. L.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. S.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, V. Y.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Emtsev, V. V.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
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F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
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Fritsch, D.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gelmont, B. L.

A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
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Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goncharuk, A. N.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, J.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardtdegen, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
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Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
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Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilegems, M.

A. S. Barker and M. Ilegems, “Infrared lattice vibrations and free-electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Inushima, T.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, S. V.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, T. W.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

Kim, D. Y.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. M.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. K.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. T.

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

Lu, T. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mamutin, V. V.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meijers, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

Montanari, S.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

Petrikov, V. D.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. R.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sebald, K.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

Y. R. Wu and J. Singh, “Polar heterostructure for multifunction devices theoretical studies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 52(2), 284–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. N.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, M. B.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. H.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tada, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thillosen, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. C.

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vekshin, V. A.

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. M.

Wu, Y. R.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu and J. Singh, “Polar heterostructure for multifunction devices theoretical studies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 52(2), 284–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. C.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, V. D. Petrikov, V. V. Mamutin, V. A. Vekshin, S. V. Ivanov, M. B. Smirnov, and T. Inushima, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phonons in hexagonal InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3297–3299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. L.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

Y. R. Wu and J. Singh, “Polar heterostructure for multifunction devices theoretical studies,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 52(2), 284–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, M. Singh, and J. Singh, “Gate leakage suppression and contact engineering in nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5826–5831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bykhovski, B. L. Gelmont, and M. S. Shur, “Elastic strain relaxation and piezoeffect in GaN-AlN, GaN-AlGaN and GaN-InGaN superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6332–6338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amaro, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67(23), 235205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III–V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Barker and M. Ilegems, “Infrared lattice vibrations and free-electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 36–43 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the nanorod LED array. The passivation layer is either spin-coated SOG or PECVD-grown SiO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra of the planar LED (a) “Nanorod LED with SiO2“ (b) “Nanorod LED with SOG” (c) at the injection current between 2mA and 20mA. The peak energy position (d) and the peak energy shift (e) of the devices are also plotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Close-up views of the InGaN E2 H phonon mode of the planar structure, nanorod-SiO2 and nanorod-SOG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the vertical force exerted on the sidewall of the nanorods by the passivation material.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated band gap profiles and the optical transition energy between first states in the QW of (a) the planar structure, (b) Nanorod with SiO2 (c) Nanorod with SOG. Note only strain relaxation induced band shrinkage is considered here.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated band gap profiles and the optical transition energy between first energy states within the quantum well of (a) Planar structure (b) Nanorod with SiO2 (c) Nanorod with SOG. The results are obtained by considering both the strain relaxation induced band shrinkage and QCSE.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters employed in the simulation

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ω = ω ω 0 = ( 2 a λ 2 c 13 c 33 b λ ) ε | |
E g , G a N ( 1 X ) + E g , I n N X
E p z = 2 ε r ε 0 ( c 13 c 33 e 33 e 31 ) ε x x

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