Abstract

This paper is devoted to study one of the most important applications of metamaterials based on Split Ring Resonator (SRR) which is thin-film sensing and sensing liquids properties. We provide a broad overview of thin film deposition methods, depositing the substance material in the gap, under the rings or on the rings. The sensor allows to extract various information about the dielectric properties and the loss from the resonant frequency. The analyses process consists of comparing the resonant shift to characterize the liquid type and the resonant dip to examine the impurities induced in the liquid. Split rings accommodate a wide range of individual preferences and sensing abilities. We demonstrate sensing features of rectangular split rings designed to resonate in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: a rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Labidi, J. Belhadj Tahar and F. Choubani, “Determination of negative permittivity, permeability and refraction of metamaterials,” OSA, META 2010.
  4. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, X. G. Perlata, I. Brener, E. A. Shaner, D. W. Branch, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with terahertz split-ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, California, May 2008.
  5. H. Lee, H. Lee, K. Yoo, and J. Yook, “DNA sensing based on single element planar double split-ring resonators,” IMS, 2009.
  6. E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).
  7. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Elhawil, J. Stiens, C. D. Tandt, W. Ranson, and R. Vounckx, “Thin-film sensing using circular split-ring resonators at mm-wave frequencies,” 2nd International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic crystals and Plasmonics, Cario, Egypt, 2010.
  9. V. V. Meriaki, E. E. Chigrai, L. I. Pangonis, and M. P. Parkhomenko, “Millimeter wave method in the water content determination in materials and media,” MSMW’2001 Sym. Proc, Kharkov, Ukraine, 2001.
  10. A. Mondher, A. Elhawil, J. Stiens, R. Vounchx, J. B. Tahar, and F. Choubani, “Sensing liquid properties using split-ring resonator in mm-wave band,” IECON’2011, AZ, USA.

2009 (1)

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: a rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

Brener, I.

Chui, S. T.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: a rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

Han, J.

Li, L. W.

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Park, Y.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Taylor, A. J.

Wu, Q.

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. Y.

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, T. S.

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: a rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Splitring resonator sensors for nfrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(95), 1–3 (2009).

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

W. Xu, L. W. Li, H. Y. Yao, T. S. Yeo, and Q. Wu, “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20(1), 13–16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: a rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Labidi, J. Belhadj Tahar and F. Choubani, “Determination of negative permittivity, permeability and refraction of metamaterials,” OSA, META 2010.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, X. G. Perlata, I. Brener, E. A. Shaner, D. W. Branch, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with terahertz split-ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, California, May 2008.

H. Lee, H. Lee, K. Yoo, and J. Yook, “DNA sensing based on single element planar double split-ring resonators,” IMS, 2009.

A. Elhawil, J. Stiens, C. D. Tandt, W. Ranson, and R. Vounckx, “Thin-film sensing using circular split-ring resonators at mm-wave frequencies,” 2nd International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic crystals and Plasmonics, Cario, Egypt, 2010.

V. V. Meriaki, E. E. Chigrai, L. I. Pangonis, and M. P. Parkhomenko, “Millimeter wave method in the water content determination in materials and media,” MSMW’2001 Sym. Proc, Kharkov, Ukraine, 2001.

A. Mondher, A. Elhawil, J. Stiens, R. Vounchx, J. B. Tahar, and F. Choubani, “Sensing liquid properties using split-ring resonator in mm-wave band,” IECON’2011, AZ, USA.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three methods of thin film sensing using SRRs (a) in gap ; (b) under ring; (c) as an overlayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Square SRR design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The E-field of the SRR at resonant frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated frequency shift of SRR without and with: (a) Film deposited in the gap; (b) Film deposited under ring; (c) Film deposited on SRR plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Circular split ring(r0 = 130 µm, r1 = 70 µm, g = 20 µm, t = 0.8 µm, and h = 300 µm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Insertion loss of SRR upon adding layer on the ring.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency tuning upon adding water and seawater layers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The shift of resonant frequency in function of the thickness.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Shift and Resonant Frequency of Fig. 4(a), 4(b) and 4(c)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Resonant Frequency, Insertion Loss and Dielectrics Properties of Liquids

Equations (2)

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ε ( ω ) = ε + ε 0 ε ( 1 + iωτ )
ε s ( ω ) = ε s + ε s 0 ε s ( 1 + iωτ s ) j σ s ε 0

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