Abstract

Light polarization characteristics of the near-band-edge optical transitions in m-plane AlxGa1- xN epilayers suffering from anisotropic stresses are quantitatively explained. The epilayers were grown on an m-plane freestanding GaN substrate by both ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy methods. The light polarization direction altered from Ec to E//c at the AlN mole fraction, x, between 0.25 and 0.32, where E is the electric field component of the light and ⊥ and // represent perpendicular and parallel, respectively. To give a quantitative explanation for the result, energies and oscillator strengths of the exciton transitions involving three separate valence bands are calculated as functions of strains using the Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian. The calculation predicts that the lowest energy transition (E 1) is polarized to the m-axis normal to the surface (X 3) for 0<x≤1, meaning that E 1 emission is principally undetectable from the surface normal for any in-plane tensile strained AlxGa1- xN. The polarization direction of observable surface emission is predicted to alter from c-axis normal (X 1) to c-axis parallel (X 2) for the middle energy transition (E 2) and X 2 to X 1 for the highest energy transition (E 3) between x = 0.25 and 0.32. The experimental results are consistently reproduced by the calculation.

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2010 (4)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222 nm Deep-Ultraviolet AlGaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diode with Vertical Emission Properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, K. Hazu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Identification of extremely radiative nature of AlN by time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, T. Onuma, K. Hazu, and A. Uedono, “Major impacts of point defects and impurities on the carrier recombination dynamics in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and Semipolar Group III Nitride-Based Materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Shibata, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, M. Tanaka, T. Sota, A. Uedono, and S. F. Chichibu, “Free and bound exciton fine structures in AlN epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, T. Onuma, and H. Ohta, “Improved characteristics and issues of m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujito, K. Kiyomi, T. Mochizuki, H. Oota, H. Namita, S. Nagao, and I. Fujimura, “High-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN substrates grown by HVPE,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(5), 1056–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, and H. Ohta, “Optical properties of nearly stacking-fault-free m-plane GaN homoepitaxial films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 129901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN-quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 5(6), 2329–2332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Impact of Point Defects on the Luminescence Properties of (Al,Ga)N,” Mater. Sci. Forum 590, 233–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. –H. Park and D. Ahn, “Depolarization effects in (112)-oriented InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013505 1–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic Optical Matrix Elements in Strained GaN Quantum Wells on Semipolar and Nonpolar Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-Moment Analysis of Polarized Light Emission from InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared on Semipolar Planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Ram-Mohan, A. M. Girgis, J. D. Albrecht, and C. W. Litton, “Wavefunction engineering of layered wurtzite semiconductors grown along arbitrary crystallographic directions,” Superlattices Microstruct. 39(6), 455–477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Alemu, B. Gil, M. Julier, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of wurtzite GaN epilayers grown on A-plane sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 57(7), 3761–3764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Ohtoshi, A. Niwa, and T. Kuroda, “Dependence of optical gain on crystal orientation in wurtzite-GaN strained quantum-well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(4), 1518–1520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Gil and A. Alemu, “Optical anisotropy of excitons in strained GaN epilayers grown along the <100> direction,” Phys. Rev. B 56(19), 12446–12453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Shikanai, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, A. Kuramata, K. Horino, and S. Nakamura, “Biaxial strain dependence of exciton resonance energies in wurtzite GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahasi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. People and J. C. Bean, “Calculation of critical layer thickness versus lattice mismatch for GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(3), 322–324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. Monemar, “Fundamental energy gap of GaN from photoluminescence excitation spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 10(2), 676–681 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. G. Grimmeiss and B. Monemar, “Low-Temperature Luminescence of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(10), 4054–4058 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. –H. Park and D. Ahn, “Depolarization effects in (112)-oriented InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013505 1–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, J. D.

L. R. Ram-Mohan, A. M. Girgis, J. D. Albrecht, and C. W. Litton, “Wavefunction engineering of layered wurtzite semiconductors grown along arbitrary crystallographic directions,” Superlattices Microstruct. 39(6), 455–477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alemu, A.

A. Alemu, B. Gil, M. Julier, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of wurtzite GaN epilayers grown on A-plane sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 57(7), 3761–3764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Gil and A. Alemu, “Optical anisotropy of excitons in strained GaN epilayers grown along the <100> direction,” Phys. Rev. B 56(19), 12446–12453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
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T. Onuma, T. Shibata, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, M. Tanaka, T. Sota, A. Uedono, and S. F. Chichibu, “Free and bound exciton fine structures in AlN epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

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A. Shikanai, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, A. Kuramata, K. Horino, and S. Nakamura, “Biaxial strain dependence of exciton resonance energies in wurtzite GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. J.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-Moment Analysis of Polarized Light Emission from InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared on Semipolar Planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
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J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
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D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

A. Shikanai, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, A. Kuramata, K. Horino, and S. Nakamura, “Biaxial strain dependence of exciton resonance energies in wurtzite GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Onuma, K. Hazu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Identification of extremely radiative nature of AlN by time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, T. Onuma, K. Hazu, and A. Uedono, “Major impacts of point defects and impurities on the carrier recombination dynamics in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and Semipolar Group III Nitride-Based Materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Shibata, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, M. Tanaka, T. Sota, A. Uedono, and S. F. Chichibu, “Free and bound exciton fine structures in AlN epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, and H. Ohta, “Optical properties of nearly stacking-fault-free m-plane GaN homoepitaxial films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 129901 (2008) (erratum).
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S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, T. Onuma, and H. Ohta, “Improved characteristics and issues of m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Impact of Point Defects on the Luminescence Properties of (Al,Ga)N,” Mater. Sci. Forum 590, 233–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
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S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
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T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Impact of Point Defects on the Luminescence Properties of (Al,Ga)N,” Mater. Sci. Forum 590, 233–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-Moment Analysis of Polarized Light Emission from InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared on Semipolar Planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
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R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, I.

K. Fujito, K. Kiyomi, T. Mochizuki, H. Oota, H. Namita, S. Nagao, and I. Fujimura, “High-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN substrates grown by HVPE,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(5), 1056–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujito, K. Kiyomi, T. Mochizuki, H. Oota, H. Namita, S. Nagao, and I. Fujimura, “High-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN substrates grown by HVPE,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(5), 1056–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gil, B.

A. Alemu, B. Gil, M. Julier, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of wurtzite GaN epilayers grown on A-plane sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 57(7), 3761–3764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Gil and A. Alemu, “Optical anisotropy of excitons in strained GaN epilayers grown along the <100> direction,” Phys. Rev. B 56(19), 12446–12453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Girgis, A. M.

L. R. Ram-Mohan, A. M. Girgis, J. D. Albrecht, and C. W. Litton, “Wavefunction engineering of layered wurtzite semiconductors grown along arbitrary crystallographic directions,” Superlattices Microstruct. 39(6), 455–477 (2006).
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Gossard, A. C.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical polarization properties of interband transitions in strained group-III-nitride alloy films on GaN substrates with nonpolar orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimmeiss, H. G.

H. G. Grimmeiss and B. Monemar, “Low-Temperature Luminescence of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(10), 4054–4058 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, D. A.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hazu, K.

S. F. Chichibu, T. Onuma, K. Hazu, and A. Uedono, “Major impacts of point defects and impurities on the carrier recombination dynamics in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, K. Hazu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Identification of extremely radiative nature of AlN by time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222 nm Deep-Ultraviolet AlGaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diode with Vertical Emission Properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horino, K.

A. Shikanai, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, A. Kuramata, K. Horino, and S. Nakamura, “Biaxial strain dependence of exciton resonance energies in wurtzite GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoshi, T.

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Shibata, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, M. Tanaka, T. Sota, A. Uedono, and S. F. Chichibu, “Free and bound exciton fine structures in AlN epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Impact of Point Defects on the Luminescence Properties of (Al,Ga)N,” Mater. Sci. Forum 590, 233–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN-quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 5(6), 2329–2332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic Optical Matrix Elements in Strained GaN Quantum Wells on Semipolar and Nonpolar Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, and H. Ohta, “Optical properties of nearly stacking-fault-free m-plane GaN homoepitaxial films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 129901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, T. Onuma, and H. Ohta, “Improved characteristics and issues of m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, T. Onuma, and H. Ohta, “Improved characteristics and issues of m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, and H. Ohta, “Optical properties of nearly stacking-fault-free m-plane GaN homoepitaxial films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 129901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-Moment Analysis of Polarized Light Emission from InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared on Semipolar Planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222 nm Deep-Ultraviolet AlGaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diode with Vertical Emission Properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, D. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (110) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768–3770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, K. Hazu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Identification of extremely radiative nature of AlN by time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, T. Onuma, K. Hazu, and A. Uedono, “Major impacts of point defects and impurities on the carrier recombination dynamics in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Hoshi, K. Hazu, K. Ohshita, M. Kagaya, T. Onuma, K. Fujito, H. Namita, and S. F. Chichibu, “Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane AlxGa1-xN films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH3 source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, and H. Ohta, “Optical properties of nearly stacking-fault-free m-plane GaN homoepitaxial films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 129901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

R. People and J. C. Bean, “Calculation of critical layer thickness versus lattice mismatch for GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(3), 322–324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Yamaguchi, L. Zhao, M. Kubota, T. Onuma, and H. Ohta, “Improved characteristics and issues of m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

A. Shikanai, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, A. Kuramata, K. Horino, and S. Nakamura, “Biaxial strain dependence of exciton resonance energies in wurtzite GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(1), 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, T. Shibata, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, M. Tanaka, T. Sota, A. Uedono, and S. F. Chichibu, “Free and bound exciton fine structures in AlN epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495–2504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, T. Okamura, K. Matsukawa, T. Sota, M. Sugawara, T. Hoshi, P. Cantu, R. Sharma, J. F. Kaeding, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, K. Kosaka, K. Asai, S. Sumiya, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, ““Impact of strain on free-exciton resonance energies in wurtzite AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 089901 (2008) (erratum).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112)-plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic Optical Matrix Elements in Strained GaN Quantum Wells on Semipolar and Nonpolar Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-Moment Analysis of Polarized Light Emission from InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared on Semipolar Planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High Brightness InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Forum (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Impact of Point Defects on the Luminescence Properties of (Al,Ga)N,” Mater. Sci. Forum 590, 233–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and Semipolar Group III Nitride-Based Materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

B. Monemar, “Fundamental energy gap of GaN from photoluminescence excitation spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 10(2), 676–681 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Gil and A. Alemu, “Optical anisotropy of excitons in strained GaN epilayers grown along the <100> direction,” Phys. Rev. B 56(19), 12446–12453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Alemu, B. Gil, M. Julier, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of wurtzite GaN epilayers grown on A-plane sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 57(7), 3761–3764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Electronic band structure of wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the M plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (2)

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujito, K. Kiyomi, T. Mochizuki, H. Oota, H. Namita, S. Nagao, and I. Fujimura, “High-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN substrates grown by HVPE,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(5), 1056–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi C (1)

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN-quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 5(6), 2329–2332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

L. R. Ram-Mohan, A. M. Girgis, J. D. Albrecht, and C. W. Litton, “Wavefunction engineering of layered wurtzite semiconductors grown along arbitrary crystallographic directions,” Superlattices Microstruct. 39(6), 455–477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. L. Bir and G. E. Pikus, Symmetry and Strain-Induced Effect in Semiconductors, (Wiley, New York, 1974).

E. C. Young, C. S. Gallinat, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Ammonia molecular beam epitaxy of m-plane GaN and InGaN for long wavelength optoelectronics,” presented at International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN), Montreux, Switzerland, 6–10, Oct. 2008.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of a c-plane FS-GaN boule grown on a c-plane Al2O3 substrate by HVPE and a sliced m-plane FS-GaN. (b) X-ray rocking curves for the (100) diffraction of the m-plane FS-GaN. The x-rays were irradiated along the c-axis or a-axis, as shown in panel (c). (d) Schematic diagram of the notations of three axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative X-RSM images for the pseudomorhic m-plane Al0.25Ga0.75N epilayer grown on the m-plane FS-GaN taken in the vicinity of (a) (130) and (b) (201) diffraction spots. The X-RSM images for partially lattice-relaxed Al0.70Ga0.30N epilayers taken for (c) (120) and (d) (201) diffractions. Both the epilayers were grown by NH3-MBE. The closed circle in each panel shows the location of strain-free AlN, for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FWHM values for the XRCs (Δω mc , Δω ma , and Δω r ) of m-plane Al x Ga1- x N epilayers grown by NH3-MBE and MOVPE. (b) Strain components ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 , and ε X 3 X 3 of the m-plane Al x Ga1- x N films as a function of AlN mole fraction x.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Polarized CL spectra at 12 K of m-plane Al x Ga1- x N epilayers grown on the m-plane FS-GaN substrates. (b) Polarization ratios, which are defined as ( I X 1 I X 2 ) / ( I X 1 + I X 2 ) , of the Al x Ga1- x N films as a function of AlN mole fraction x. Corresponding values calculated using the relative oscillator strengths are also shown. The films of x≤0.70 were grown by NH3-MBE and x≥0.73 were grown by MOVPE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative oscillator strengths of E 1, E 2, and E 3 transitions for the m-plane GaN film as functions of in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 )   . Closed circles indicate the experimentally obtained in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 ) = ( 0.00 % , 0.00 % ) , which are plotted on the respective predominant polarization directions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative oscillator strengths of E 1, E 2, and E 3 transitions for the m-plane Al0.03Ga0.97N film as functions of in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 )   . Closed circles indicate the experimentally obtained in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 ) = ( 0.08 % , 0.13 % ) , which are plotted on the respective predominant polarization directions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative oscillator strengths of E 1, E 2, and E 3 transitions for the m-plane Al0.70Ga0.30N film as functions of in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 )   .   Closed circles indicate the experimentally obtained in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 ) = ( 0.79 % , 0.35 % ) , which are plotted on the respective predominant polarization directions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative oscillator strengths of E 1, E 2, and E 3 transitions for the m-plane Al.N film as functions of in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 )   . Closed circles indicate the experimentally obtained in-plane strain coordinate ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 ) = ( 0.25 % , 1.96 % )   . They are plotted on the outside of the frameworks of respective predominant polarization directions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated E 1, E 2, and E 3 exciton transition energies for the m-plane (a) GaN, (b) Al0.03Ga0.97N, (c) Al0.70Ga0.30N, and (d) AlN films. The energy difference between E 2 and E 1, (E 2-E 1), as functions of in-plane strains ( ε X 1 X 1 , ε X 2 X 2 ) for the m-plane (e) GaN, (f) Al0.03Ga0.97N, (g) Al0.70Ga0.30N, and (h) AlN films. Closed circles indicate respective in-plane strains.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated E 2 transition energies (closed squares), measured CL peak energies (open circles), and their energy differences (closed diamonds) for the m-plane Al x Ga1- x N films as a function of x.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical Constants of Thin Films of Materials a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated polarization directions for E 1, E 2, and E 3 transitions and energy differences between E 1 and E 2 band (E 2-E 1).

Equations (1)

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ε + = ε x x ε y y + 2 i ε x y .

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