Abstract

Based on hybrid inorganic/organic n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN thin film/poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) dual heterojunctions, the light emitting diode (LED) emits ultraviolet (UV) radiation (370 nm – 400 nm) and the whole visible light (400 nm −700 nm) at the low injection current density. Meanwhile, under the high injection current density, the UV radiation overwhelmingly dominates the room-temperature electroluminescence spectra, exponentially increases with the injection current density and possesses a narrow full width at half maximum less than 16 nm. Comparing electroluminescence with photoluminescence spectra, an enormously enhanced transition probability of the UV luminescence in the electroluminescence spectra was found. The P3HT layer plays an essential role in helping the UV emission from p-GaN material because of its hole-conductive characteristic as well as the band alignment with respect to p-GaN. With our new finding, the result shown here may pave a new route for the development of high brightness LEDs derived from hybrid inorganic/organic heterojuctions.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of Yellow Luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Enhanced blue and green emission in rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent devices by optical photopumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(13), 2331–2333 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. I. Park and G. C. Yi, “Electroluminescence in n-ZnO Nanorod Arrays Vertically Grown on p-GaN,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 87–90 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. A. Reshchikov and R. Y. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. E. Fouquet and A. E. Siegman, “Room-temperature photoluminescence times in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs molecular beam epitaxy multiple quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(3), 280–282 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. I. Park and G. C. Yi, “Electroluminescence in n-ZnO Nanorod Arrays Vertically Grown on p-GaN,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 87–90 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. S. Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Enhanced blue and green emission in rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent devices by optical photopumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(13), 2331–2333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and R. Y. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. E. Fouquet and A. E. Siegman, “Room-temperature photoluminescence times in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs molecular beam epitaxy multiple quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(3), 280–282 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of Yellow Luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, M.

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of Yellow Luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B. M.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechgaard, K.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, L.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birkhahn, R.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, G.

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, E. Y.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I. C.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. L.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. H.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M. V.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claflin, B.

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. T.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, D. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. G.

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fong, P. W. K.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foong, T. R. B.

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fouquet, J. E.

J. E. Fouquet and A. E. Siegman, “Room-temperature photoluminescence times in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs molecular beam epitaxy multiple quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(3), 280–282 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. K.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garter, M.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ginley, D. S.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gwo, S.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, C. S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ham, M. H.

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heikenfeld, J.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herwig, P.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, Y. L.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. L.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. F.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsueh, T. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huso, J.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. C.

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, U.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korotkov, R. Y.

M. A. Reshchikov and R. Y. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuech, T. F.

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, E.

E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langeveld-Voss, B. M. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. K.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

D. S. Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Enhanced blue and green emission in rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent devices by optical photopumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(13), 2331–2333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Limpijumnong, S.

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, K. L.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lui, H. F.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, M.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mcculloch, I.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minder, K.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, W. J.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y. T.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, J. L.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nause, J.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemeth, B.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obloh, H.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, T.

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of Yellow Luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. Y.

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. C.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.-N.

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. H.

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

W. I. Park and G. C. Yi, “Electroluminescence in n-ZnO Nanorod Arrays Vertically Grown on p-GaN,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 87–90 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Purdy, A. P.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, A.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ree, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov and R. Y. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D. J.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santic, B.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sellinger, A.

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S. E.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

J. E. Fouquet and A. E. Siegman, “Room-temperature photoluminescence times in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs molecular beam epitaxy multiple quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(3), 280–282 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sirringhaus, H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spiering, A. J. H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

D. S. Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Enhanced blue and green emission in rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent devices by optical photopumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(13), 2331–2333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Surya, C.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, H. L.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teherani, F. H.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuladhar, S. M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tung, L. T.

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uhlrich, J. J.

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Hest, M. F. A. M.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Nostrand, J. E.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. H.

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, M. S.

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y. Y.

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yasan, A.

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. C.

W. I. Park and G. C. Yi, “Electroluminescence in n-ZnO Nanorod Arrays Vertically Grown on p-GaN,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 87–90 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. B.

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, M. S. White, W. J. Mitchell, M. F. A. M. van Hest, R. T. Collins, and D. S. Ginley, “Band-Offset Engineering for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer–Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 264–269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. B. Foong, Y. Shen, X. Hu, and A. Sellinger, “Template-Directed Liquid ALD Growth of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Properties and Potential in Photovoltaic Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(9), 1390–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. I. Park and G. C. Yi, “Electroluminescence in n-ZnO Nanorod Arrays Vertically Grown on p-GaN,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 87–90 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a High-Brightness Blue-Light-Emitting Diode Using a ZnO-Nanowire Array Grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction lightemitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Myoung, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowires in n-ZnO film/ZnO nanowire array/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, M. Garter, D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and R. Birkhahn, “Blue emission from Tm-doped GaN electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2184–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, B. K. Lee, and A. J. Steckl, “Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1525–1527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Enhanced blue and green emission in rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent devices by optical photopumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(13), 2331–2333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaufmann, M. Kunzer, M. Maier, H. Obloh, A. Ramakrishnan, B. Santic, and P. Schlotter, “Nature of the 2.8 eV photoluminescence band in Mg doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1326–1328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Fouquet and A. E. Siegman, “Room-temperature photoluminescence times in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs molecular beam epitaxy multiple quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(3), 280–282 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.-N. Park, J. J. Uhlrich, T. F. Kuech, and P. G. Evans, “Electrical properties of GaN/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 013713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

B. Claflin, D. C. Look, S. J. Park, and G. Cantwell, “Persistent n-type photoconductivity in p-type ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 16–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

L. T. Tung, K. L. Lin, E. Y. Chang, W. C. Huang, Y. L. Hsiao, and C. H. Chiang, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of GaN films grown by MOCVD,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 187, 012021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of Yellow Luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

E. Lai, W. Kim, and P. Yang, “Vertical Nanowire Array-Based Light Emitting Diodes,” Nano Res. 1(2), 123–128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. M. C. Ng, Y. Y. Xi, Y. F. Hsu, A. B. Djurisić, W. K. Chan, S. Gwo, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, P. W. K. Fong, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “GaN/ZnO nanorod light emitting diodes with different emission spectra,” Nanotechnology 20(44), 445201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C. S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and R. Y. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Limpijumnong, S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and C. H. Park, “Doping by large-size-mismatched impurities: the microscopic origin of arsenic- or antimony-doped p-type zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(15), 155504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

M. A. Reshchikov, Y. T. Moon, X. Gu, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. Morkoc, “Unstable luminescence in GaN and ZnO,” Physica B 376-377, 715–718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

M. C. Jeong, B. Y. Oh, M. H. Ham, S. W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “ZnO-Nanowire-Inserted GaN/ZnO Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Small 3, 568–572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the (n-ZnO nanorods)/(p-GaN film)/(P3HT film) dual-heterojunction LED device. (b) Band diagram and transition process responsible for the EL spectra without forward bias. (SD: shallow donor, SA: shallow acceptor, DD: deep donor, DA: deep acceptor)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-view and (b) cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of as-grown n-ZnO nanorods on p-GaN thin film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of n-ZnO nanorods, p-GaN thin film, and poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) thin film at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diode like current-voltage characteristics of dual-heterojunction LED at room temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) spectra of dual-heterojunctions LED (a) at the low injection current density, (b) at the high injection current density.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room-temperature, injection-current-density-dependent EL intensity at (a) 3.2 eV in the logarithmic scales, (b) 1.9 eV, 2.2 eV, 2.75 eV and 2.91 eV in the linear scales.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = α I o β   .

Metrics