Abstract

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) usually exhibit a low light outcoupling efficiency because a large fraction of power is lost to surface plasmons (SPs) and waveguide modes. In this paper it is demonstrated that periodic grating structures with almost µm-scale can be used to extract SPs as well as waveguide modes and therefore enhance the outcoupling efficiency in light-emitting thin film structures. The gratings are fabricated by nanoimprint lithography using a commercially available diffraction grating as a mold which is pressed into a polymer resist. The outcoupling of SPs and waveguide modes is detected in fluorescent organic films adjacent to a thin metal layer in angular dependent photoluminescence measurements. Scattering up to 5th-order is observed and the extracted modes are identified by comparison to the SP and waveguide dispersion obtained from optical simulations. In order to demonstrate the low-cost, high quality and large area applicability of grating structures in optoelectronic devices, we also present SP extraction using a grating structure fabricated by a common DVD stamp.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
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  3. L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. A. Schouhamer Immink, “The digital versatile disc (DVD): System requirements and channel coding,” SMPTE J. 105, 483–489 (1996).
  27. J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, and W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron. 8(2-3), 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth and M. D. McGehee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 064502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3673–3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Schouhamer Immink, “The digital versatile disc (DVD): System requirements and channel coding,” SMPTE J. 105, 483–489 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

Adams, A.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron. 8(2-3), 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3673–3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brütting, W.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, and W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Endo, A.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, and W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

Gerken, M.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giannattasio, A.

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron. 8(2-3), 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P. K.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harrer, S.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. K. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I. R.

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugli, P.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

J. M. Ziebarth and M. D. McGehee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 064502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mladenovski, S.

Moreland, J.

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, and W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pavicic, D.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, B.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, C.

Saafir, A. K.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, A.

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scarpa, G.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schouhamer Immink, K. A.

K. A. Schouhamer Immink, “The digital versatile disc (DVD): System requirements and channel coding,” SMPTE J. 105, 483–489 (1996).

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L. H.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strobel, S.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tornow, M.

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasey, J. A. E.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron. 8(2-3), 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3673–3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, A.

Yokoyama, D.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth and M. D. McGehee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 064502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Determination of molecular dipole orientation in doped fluorescent organic thin films by photoluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescence from a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P. Lugli, “Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 363–370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth and M. D. McGehee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 064502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, “Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Electron. (2)

D. Yokoyama, A. Sakaguchi, M. Suzuki, and C. Adachi, “Horizontal orientation of linear-shaped organic molecules having bulky substituents in neat and doped vacuum-deposited amorphous films,” Org. Electron. 10(1), 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron. 8(2-3), 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Moreland, A. Adams, and P. K. Hansma, “Efficiency of light emission from surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 25(4), 2297–2300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface-plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(15), 11441–11445 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, and W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

SMPTE J. (1)

K. A. Schouhamer Immink, “The digital versatile disc (DVD): System requirements and channel coding,” SMPTE J. 105, 483–489 (1996).

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 2.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 2007), Chap. 2–3.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” (submitted).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic dispersion of light and surface plasmons in a sample with planar interfaces. (b) Dispersion in a sample with periodically corrugated interfaces. In the latter case scattering of surface plasmons at the periodic grating may occur which shifts the SP wave vector by a multiple of the grating wave vector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of imprint lithography and sample fabrication: The corrugation of the master stamp is transferred to a heated sample consisting of a PMMA layer on glass, producing a replica of the grating. In the last step, organic and metallic layers are evaporated on the PMMA grating. (b) Device overview: Devices 1 and 2 are based on the same grating with 833 nm period but employ a different Alq3 thickness. In addition, a half cylinder fused silica prism is attached to the backside of device 1. Device 3 uses a 740 nm grating from a DVD stamp which is directly imprinted into the active layer (5 wt% Lumogen Yellow doped into PMMA).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup (top view). A half cylinder fused silica prism is attached to the backside of device 1 whereas devices 2 and 3 are measured without additional outcoupling structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Simulation of the total dissipated power for devices 1 and 2, respectively, without taking the corrugation into account. The emitter position is assumed to be centered in the Alq3 layer. Red areas indicate high amount of dissipated power. The solid white lines divide the graph into four regions: emission into air (1), emission into glass substrate (2), waveguide modes (3) and coupling to surface plasmons (4). No waveguide modes exist in device 1 due to the thin Alq3 layer. The dashed yellow line was calculated using Eq. (1) assuming semi-infinite Ag and Alq3 layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) AFM image of the structure obtained by imprint of a grating with 833 nm period into PMMA as used in devices 1 and 2. (b) Profile at the position indicated by the dotted line in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM cross section image of device 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement of the p-polarized emission of device 1. The dotted lines represent the dispersion of surface plasmons obtained from Fig. 4(a) shifted by a multiple m of the wave vector of an 833 nm grating. Negative values of m denote scattering of surface plasmons traveling in the positive k x-direction and vice versa. The higher emission around −47° results from reflections of the incident laser beam. The two horizontal dashed lines indicate the position of the cross sections shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a), (b) Cross section of Fig. 7 at a wavelength of 575 nm and 625 nm, respectively. The dotted lines approximately indicate the contribution of directly emitted light. The increased intensity around −47° due to the reflected laser has been manually subtracted.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured p-polarized emission of device 2. The lines are obtained from the dispersion of surface plasmons shown in Fig. 4(b) shifted by a multiple of the wave vector of an 833 nm grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured s-polarized emission of device 2. The lines are obtained from the dispersion of the waveguide mode shown in Fig. 4(b) shifted by a multiple of the wave vector of an 833 nm grating.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) AFM image after imprinting a DVD stamp into the Lumogen:PMMA layer used in device 3. The DVD track runs diagonally from the top right to the bottom left corner. (b) Profile at the position indicated by the dotted line in (a).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurement of the p-polarized emission of device 3. The lines represent the SP dispersion obtained from a simulation of device 3 shifted by a multiple of the wave vector of a 740 nm grating which corresponds to the track pitch of a DVD.

Equations (2)

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k S P = k 0 ε m ε d ε m + ε d ,
k S P = k S P ± m k g ,

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