Abstract

We demonstrated that the graphene could be used as an effective saturable absorber for Q-switched solid-state lasers. A graphene saturable absorber mirror was fabricated with large and high-quality graphene sheets deprived from the liquid phase exfoliation. Using this mirror, 105-ns pulses and 2.3-W average output power are obtained from a passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser. The maximum pulse energy is 3.2 μJ. The slope efficiency is as high as 37% approximating to 40% of the continue-wave laser, indicating a low intrinsic loss of the graphene.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc(3)(BO(3))(4) microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 381–383 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, P. A.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Girit, C.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. B.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc(3)(BO(3))(4) microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Katsnelson, M. I.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 381–383 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc(3)(BO(3))(4) microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, P. L.

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. J.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J. P.

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc(3)(BO(3))(4) microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 381–383 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obergfell, D.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rana, F.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reffert, S.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strait, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, W. D.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Xie, G. Q.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. G.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zettl, A.

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, H.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. M.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S. D.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interacton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, D. Obergfell, S. Roth, C. Girit, and A. Zettl, “On the roughness of single-and bi-layer graphene membranes,” Solid State Commun. 143(1–2), 101–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM images of graphene sheets. (b) HRTEM images of graphene sheets. (c) SEAD pattern shows the six-fold rotational symmetry (d) HRTEM image of graphene edge where fringes are observed and interlaminar spacing is 0.34-nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmissivity spectra of the BK7 substrate and graphene SAM. (b) Experimental setup of the Q-switched laser. (c) Average output power versus incident pump power for continuous-wave and Q-switching (Q-S) operation. (d) Pulse width and repetition rate versus incident pump power for Q-switching operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q-switched pulse train under the incident pump power of 0.9 W (a), under the incident pump power of 3.2 W (b), and under the incident pump power of 6.5 W (c). (d) 105-ns Q-switched pulse profile under the incident pump power of 6.5 W.

Equations (1)

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T = T o ( 1 α ) n

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