Abstract

Optical traps consisting of two counterpropagating, divergent beams of light allow relatively high forces to be exerted along the optical axis by turning off one beam, however the axial stiffness of the trap is generally low due to the lower numerical apertures typically used. Using a high speed spatial light modulator and CMOS camera, we demonstrate 3D servocontrol of a trapped particle, increasing the stiffness from 0.004 to 1.5μNm−1. This is achieved in the “macro-tweezers” geometry [Thalhammer, J. Opt. 13, 044024 (2011); Pitzek, Opt. Express 17, 19414 (2009)], which has a much larger field of view and working distance than single-beam tweezers due to its lower numerical aperture requirements. Using a 10×, 0.2NA objective, active feedback produces a trap with similar effective stiffness to a conventional single-beam gradient trap, of order 1μNm−1 in 3D. Our control loop has a round-trip latency of 10ms, leading to a resonance at 20Hz. This is sufficient bandwidth to reduce the position fluctuations of a 10μm bead due to Brownian motion by two orders of magnitude. This approach can be trivially extended to multiple particles, and we show three simultaneously position-clamped beads.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. S. Dam, I. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09045 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. B. G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers.” J. Opt. A 13(4), 044003 (2011).

2010 (4)

2009 (6)

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pitzek, R. Steiger, G. Thalhammer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical mirror trap with a large field of view,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19414–19423 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Preece, R. W. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sehgal, T. Aggarwal, and M. V. Salapaka, “High bandwidth force estimation for optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. E. Wallin, H. Ojala, E. Haeggstrom, and R. Tuma, “Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 224104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Three-dimensional imaging in three-dimensional optical multi-beam micromanipulation,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7244–7250 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. Rodrigo, V. Daria, and J. Glückstad, “Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Perch-Nielsen, P. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Real-time interactive 3D manipulation of particles viewed in two orthogonal observation planes,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2852–2857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Molloy and M. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43(4), 241–258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

K. Svoboda, C. Schmidt, B. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of Kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiberoptic light-force trap,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1867–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, T.

H. Sehgal, T. Aggarwal, and M. V. Salapaka, “High bandwidth force estimation for optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonzo, C. A.

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Bañas, A.

Berghoff, K.

Bernet, S.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda, C. Schmidt, B. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of Kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, R. W.

Burns, J. E.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Constable, A.

Cooper, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerwinski, F.

Dam, J. S.

J. S. Dam, I. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Three-dimensional imaging in three-dimensional optical multi-beam micromanipulation,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7244–7250 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daria, V.

P. Rodrigo, V. Daria, and J. Glückstad, “Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Gibson, G.

Glückstad, J.

Gornall, J. L.

Grier, D. G.

Guck, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutzler, T.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeggstrom, E.

A. E. Wallin, H. Ojala, E. Haeggstrom, and R. Tuma, “Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 224104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Reicherter, T. Haist, E. Wagemann, and H. Tiziani, “Optical particle trapping with computer-generated holograms written on a liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 608–610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hermerschmidt, A.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, T. R.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, P.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Käs, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelemen, L.

Kendrick-jones, J.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyser, U. F.

Kim, J.

Leach, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

Linnenberger, A.

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mervis, J.

Miyamoto, Y.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J.

J. Molloy and M. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43(4), 241–258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J. E.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, T. J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K.

K. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L. B.

Ojala, H.

A. E. Wallin, H. Ojala, E. Haeggstrom, and R. Tuma, “Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 224104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

Osten, W.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, O.

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

R. W. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers.” J. Opt. A 13(4), 044003 (2011).

Palima, D.

Perch-Nielsen, I.

J. S. Dam, I. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Perch-Nielsen, P. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Real-time interactive 3D manipulation of particles viewed in two orthogonal observation planes,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2852–2857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Pitzek, M.

Preece, D.

R. W. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers.” J. Opt. A 13(4), 044003 (2011).

D. Preece, R. W. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

Reicherter, M.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

S. B. G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pitzek, R. Steiger, G. Thalhammer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical mirror trap with a large field of view,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19414–19423 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, P.

P. Rodrigo, V. Daria, and J. Glückstad, “Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Perch-Nielsen, P. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Real-time interactive 3D manipulation of particles viewed in two orthogonal observation planes,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2852–2857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, P. J.

Salapaka, M. V.

H. Sehgal, T. Aggarwal, and M. V. Salapaka, “High bandwidth force estimation for optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C.

K. Svoboda, C. Schmidt, B. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of Kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B.

K. Svoboda, C. Schmidt, B. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of Kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sehgal, H.

H. Sehgal, T. Aggarwal, and M. V. Salapaka, “High bandwidth force estimation for optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, R.

Serati, S.

Sinclair, G.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steiger, R.

S. B. G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pitzek, R. Steiger, G. Thalhammer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical mirror trap with a large field of view,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19414–19423 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stober, G.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, C. Schmidt, B. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of Kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauro, S.

Thalhammer, G.

Thalhammer, S. B. G.

S. B. G. Thalhammer, R. Steiger, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044024 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

Tregear, R. T.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuma, R.

A. E. Wallin, H. Ojala, E. Haeggstrom, and R. Tuma, “Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 224104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagemann, E.

Wallin, A. E.

A. E. Wallin, H. Ojala, E. Haeggstrom, and R. Tuma, “Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 224104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warber, M.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, “Holographic twin traps,” J. Opt. A 11(3), 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, D. C. S.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and force produced by a single myosin head,” Nature 378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (3508 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the trapping and imaging system. The laser is split into two beams with the SLM, one of which is reflected by the mirror to form a backward-propagating focus. A prism provides a side view, from which we can find the axial position of objects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample cell and optical system used in the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatterplot of the motion of a 10μm Silica particle in the trap with and without feedback (100 s of data at 1 kHz), along with power spectra of the particle’s motion and corresponding stiffness values for different feedback gains az in the axial direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left) Response of a 10μm bead to a square-wave control signal, with and without feedback ( Media 1). (right) Three 10μm beads simultaneously clamped in 3D, with scatterplots of their position. Stiffness values are shown below the image.

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