Abstract

A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter’s track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters.

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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Title, “Improvement of birefringent filters,” Sol. Phys. 33, 521–523 (1973).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and G. Shepherd, “Divided-mirror scanning technique for a small Michelson interferometer,” Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P.B. Hays and J. Wang, Eds: Proc SPIE, 2830, 15–18, 1996.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

2008 (1)

G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Liu and G. Shepherd, “Perturbed profiles of oxygen nightglow emissions as observed by WINDII on UARS,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(9), 1018–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and S. Brown, “Divided mirror technique for measuring Doppler shifts with a Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 266–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1973 (1)

A. Title, “Improvement of birefringent filters,” Sol. Phys. 33, 521–523 (1973).

Alunni, J.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bird, J.

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and S. Brown, “Divided mirror technique for measuring Doppler shifts with a Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 266–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35(16), 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brun, J.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, E.

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W.

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and S. Brown, “Divided mirror technique for measuring Doppler shifts with a Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 266–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

Girod, F.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, J. W.

Hersom, C.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, L.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, S. F.

Kaufmann, M.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J.

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Liang, D.

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35(16), 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, F.

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu and G. Shepherd, “Perturbed profiles of oxygen nightglow emissions as observed by WINDII on UARS,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(9), 1018–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McLandress, C.

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Moise, A.

Ohrt, J.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peillet, O.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riese, M.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R.

G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S.

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and S. Brown, “Divided mirror technique for measuring Doppler shifts with a Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 266–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sellar, G.

Shepherd, G.

G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu and G. Shepherd, “Perturbed profiles of oxygen nightglow emissions as observed by WINDII on UARS,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(9), 1018–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

Solheim, B.

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Title, A.

A. Title, “Improvement of birefringent filters,” Sol. Phys. 33, 521–523 (1973).

Ungermann, J.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

Ward, W.

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R.

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35(16), 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Zhang, C.

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

Zhang, S.

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

Acta Phys. Sin (1)

J. Wang, C. Zhang, B. Zhao, and N. Liu, “Study the rule of light transmission through the four-side pyramid prism in the static polarization wind imaging interferometer,” Acta Phys. Sin . 59 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 339-354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (3)

G. Liu and G. Shepherd, “Perturbed profiles of oxygen nightglow emissions as observed by WINDII on UARS,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(9), 1018–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, W. Ward, Y. Rochon, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 1: generalization of the Hines-Tarasick's theory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 35–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Y. Rochon, S. Zhang, W. Ward, R. Wiens, D. Liang, W. Gault, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(1), 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. Wang, C. McLandress, E. Fleming, W. Ward, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “Empirical model of 90-120 km horizontal winds from wind-imaging interferometer green line measurements in 1992-1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D6), 6729–6745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, G. Shepherd, and R. Roble, “Seasonal variations of the nighttime O (1S) and OH airglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes in the context of the large-scale circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(A6), A06302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Bird, F. Liang, B. Solheim, and G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(9), 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and S. Brown, “Divided mirror technique for measuring Doppler shifts with a Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 266–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

A. Title, “Improvement of birefringent filters,” Sol. Phys. 33, 521–523 (1973).

Other (4)

W. E. Ward, “The middle atmosphere ozone, dynamics and energetics experiment (MODE).” in Phase A report submitted to the Canadian Space Agency, D. W. Tarasick, ed. (1998).

Y. Rochon, “The retrieval of winds, Doppler temperatures, and emission rates for the WINDII experiment,” Ph.D. Thesis, York University (2000).

W. Gault, S. Sargoytchev, and G. Shepherd, “Divided-mirror scanning technique for a small Michelson interferometer,” Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P.B. Hays and J. Wang, Eds: Proc SPIE, 2830, 15–18, 1996.

W. Gault, G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, and B. Solheim, “The Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite” Instrumentation for planetary and terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992 (A93-27076 09-35), p. 54-60.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a TSMPAMI

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The measurement principle of the TSPAMI

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wind velocity in m/s (a,b) and temperature in K (c,d) measured by TSMPAMI (a,c) and SMWINDII (b,d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, but for the measurement errors

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement errors introduced by space-mismatch; (a) Wind errors in m/s; (b) Temperature errors in K

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wind velocity in m/s (a,b) and temperature in K (c,d) measured by TSMPAMI (a,c) and SMWINDII (b,d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, but for the measurement errors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement errors introduced by space-mismatch; (a) Wind errors in m/s; (b) Temperature errors in K.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 [ 1 + U V cos ( θ + ϕ ) ]
ϕ = 2 π Δ 0 v / ( c λ 0 )
V = exp ( Q T Δ 2 )
( I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 ) = ( 1 U 1 cos θ 1 U 1 sin θ 1 1 U 2 cos θ 2 U 2 sin θ 2 1 U 3 cos θ 3 U 3 sin θ 3 1 U 4 cos θ 4 U 4 sin θ 4 ) ( J 1 J 2 J 3 )
J = ( J 1 J 2 J 3 ) = ( I 0 I 0 V cos ϕ I 0 V sin ϕ )
I = M J
J = ( M T M ) 1 M I
tan ϕ = J 3 / J 2
V = J 2 2 + J 3 2 / J 1
v = v 0 + v a sin ( 2 π x / λ w )
T = T 0 + T a sin ( 2 π x / λ w )

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