Abstract

Apparatus and method for the in situ control of photonic device intermixing processes are described. The setup utilises an optical fiber splitter which delivers photons to selectively anneal the photonic device and simultaneously measures the emission spectra from the device to monitor the intermixing process in real time. The in situ monitoring of a laser annealing process for the modification of a semiconductor laser diode facet is demonstrated using the instrumentation. A progressive blueshift in the emission wavelength of the device can clearly be observed in real time while high energy photons are delivered to anneal the device facet, hence enabling the control on the degree of intermixing required. This instrumentation is also ideal for broadening of emission spectra in quantum dot and quantum well based light emitting devices such as superluminescent diodes and broadband laser.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. W. Boyd and J. I. B. Wilson, “Laser annealing for semiconductor devices,” Nature 287(5780), 278 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Deppe and N. Holonyak., “Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(12), R93–R113 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Lee, A. G. Choo, W. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, G. G. Park, and T. I. Kim, “Enhanced COD of pump laser diode by laser annealing of the facet,” The 4th IEEE International Conference on VLSI and CAD, ICVC’95, October 15–18, 1995, Seoul, Korea (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 337–339.
  11. B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. K. Chia, M. Suryana, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermal runaway and optical efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, B. Xu, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “Realization of extremely broadband quantum-dot superluminescent light-emitting diodes by rapid thermal-annealing process,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1210–1212 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-7055 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Jiang, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “Effects of intermixing on modulation p-doped quantum dot superluminescent light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7055–7063 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-7055 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8916–8922 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-8916 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

C. K. Chia, M. Suryana, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermal runaway and optical efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. G. Deppe and N. Holonyak., “Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(12), R93–R113 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

I. W. Boyd and J. I. B. Wilson, “Laser annealing for semiconductor devices,” Nature 287(5780), 278 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ang, L. K.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arokiaraj, J.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bardeen, J.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barik, S.

S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

I. W. Boyd and J. I. B. Wilson, “Laser annealing for semiconductor devices,” Nature 287(5780), 278 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, A. C.

C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camras, M. D.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chia, C. K.

C. K. Chia, M. Suryana, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermal runaway and optical efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. J.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe and N. Holonyak., “Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(12), R93–R113 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Djie, H. S.

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J. R.

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunawan, O.

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hess, K.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R. A.

Holonyak, N.

D. G. Deppe and N. Holonyak., “Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(12), R93–R113 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

Jagadish, C.

S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

Jin, P.

Kapkus, P. K.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laidig, W. D.

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lv, X. Q.

Marsh, J. H.

C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mei, T.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ooi, B. S.

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, B. C.

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sookdhis, C.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suryana, M.

C. K. Chia, M. Suryana, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermal runaway and optical efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X. H.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teo, S. L.

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C. L.

C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. Y.

Wang, Z. G.

Wilson, J. I. B.

I. W. Boyd and J. I. B. Wilson, “Laser annealing for semiconductor devices,” Nature 287(5780), 278 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Yu, S. F.

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, and J. R. Dong, “Group-V intermixing in InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Laidig, N. Holonyak, M. D. Camras, K. Hess, J. J. Coleman, P. K. Kapkus, and J. Bardeen, “Disorder of an AlAs-GaAs superlattice by impurity diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 776–778 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High temperature rapid thermal annealing of phosphorous ion implanted InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Barik, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Impurity-free disordering of InAs/InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, and O. Gunawan, “Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chia, M. Suryana, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermal runaway and optical efficiency in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, C. Sookdhis, S. F. Yu, L. K. Ang, and X. H. Tang, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of argon plasma-enhanced quantum-well intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 166–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. L. Walker, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “Improved catastrophic optical damage level from laser with nonabsorbing mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1394–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Qiu, A. C. Bryce, R. M. De La Rue, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic integration in InGaAs–InGaAsP multiquantum-well structure using laser processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 769–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Deppe and N. Holonyak., “Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(12), R93–R113 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

I. W. Boyd and J. I. B. Wilson, “Laser annealing for semiconductor devices,” Nature 287(5780), 278 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

J. H. Lee, A. G. Choo, W. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, G. G. Park, and T. I. Kim, “Enhanced COD of pump laser diode by laser annealing of the facet,” The 4th IEEE International Conference on VLSI and CAD, ICVC’95, October 15–18, 1995, Seoul, Korea (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 337–339.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Colour online) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for laser annealing with in situ control and monitor capacities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra from the 972 nm light source, QD laser and the second harmonic signal captured on OSA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Colour online) Progressive blueshift of the electroluminescence spectrum of the InAs/GaAs QD laser during annealing. From right to left: 0, 1, 3, 7, and 10 min after the 972 nm annealing light source was turned on. The blueshift is temporary and will revert back to the original position after the LA process has ended.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Colour online) Light-current characteristics measured from the same InAs/GaAs QD laser before (solid line) and after facet 1 annealed for 5 min (broken line); facets 1 and 2 annealed for 5 min each (dot-dashed line); and facet 1 annealed for 10 min, facet 2 annealed for 5 min (dot-dot-dashed line).

Metrics