Abstract

A distributed feedback Bragg grating waveguide all-optical switch design relying on the ultrafast cross modulation effect of the intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells is demonstrated. The pump-induced phase modulation to the signal light is converted to intensity modulation efficiently on chip with the help of the grating structures. To our best knowledge, the switching dynamic characteristics of such design are reported for the first time. With a 400 μm long grating waveguide, 3 dB modulation depth with switching energy of 5.5 pJ and recovery time of 4.5 ps is obtained for the switch-off operation.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. S. L. Chuang and D. Ahn, “Optical transitions in a parabolic quantum well with an applied electric field-analytical solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(7), 2822 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “Optical waveguide structure for an all-optical switch based on intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2680–2682 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Cristea, Y. Fedoryshyn, and H. Jäckel, “Growth of AlAsSb/InGaAs MBE-layers for all-optical switches,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 544–547 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. G. Lim, “Effects of two-photon absorption on pump-induced refractive-index change in AlAsSb–InGaAs–AlAs optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 523–530 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Davanço, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. Hu, and D. Blumenthal, “Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4931–4938 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. G. Lim, “Characteristics of the ultrafast all-optical cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double-quantum-well optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 103109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Effects of two-photon absorption on pump-induced refractive-index change in AlAsSb–InGaAs–AlAs optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 523–530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Ma, P. Kaspar, Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based planar photonic crystal waveguide in honeycomb lattice geometry for TM-polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1558–1560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

K. S. Abedin, G. W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, R. Akimoto, and H. Ishikawa, “High-speed all-optical modulation using an InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9684–9690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Plasma dispersion effect in heavily doped antimony-based passive optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “Optical waveguide structure for an all-optical switch based on intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2680–2682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. L. Chuang and D. Ahn, “Optical transitions in a parabolic quantum well with an applied electric field-analytical solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(7), 2822 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

K. S. Abedin, G. W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, R. Akimoto, and H. Ishikawa, “High-speed all-optical modulation using an InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9684–9690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. L. Chuang and D. Ahn, “Optical transitions in a parabolic quantum well with an applied electric field-analytical solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(7), 2822 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Akano, Y.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Abedin, G. W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, R. Akimoto, and H. Ishikawa, “High-speed all-optical modulation using an InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9684–9690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akita, K.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bendickson, J. M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumenthal, D.

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and D. Ahn, “Optical transitions in a parabolic quantum well with an applied electric field-analytical solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(7), 2822 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cong, G. W.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cristea, P.

P. Cristea, Y. Fedoryshyn, and H. Jäckel, “Growth of AlAsSb/InGaAs MBE-layers for all-optical switches,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 544–547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davanço, M.

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ma, P. Kaspar, Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based planar photonic crystal waveguide in honeycomb lattice geometry for TM-polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1558–1560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “Optical waveguide structure for an all-optical switch based on intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2680–2682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cristea, Y. Fedoryshyn, and H. Jäckel, “Growth of AlAsSb/InGaAs MBE-layers for all-optical switches,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 544–547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, R. J.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, A. V.

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gozu, S.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

Ishikawa, H.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Abedin, G. W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, R. Akimoto, and H. Ishikawa, “High-speed all-optical modulation using an InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9684–9690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, H.

Jaeckel, H.

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kasai, J.

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, J.-

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspar, P.

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ma, P. Kaspar, Y. Fedoryshyn, P. Strasser, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based planar photonic crystal waveguide in honeycomb lattice geometry for TM-polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1558–1560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-C.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledbetter, H. S.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. G.

C. G. Lim, “Characteristics of the ultrafast all-optical cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double-quantum-well optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 103109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Effects of two-photon absorption on pump-induced refractive-index change in AlAsSb–InGaAs–AlAs optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 523–530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Plasma dispersion effect in heavily doped antimony-based passive optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G. W.

Ma, P.

Miyazaki, T.

K. S. Abedin, G. W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, R. Akimoto, and H. Ishikawa, “High-speed all-optical modulation using an InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9684–9690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mozume, T.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, M.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M.

Raring, J.

Reinhardt, S. B.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robin, F.

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, S.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

Takenaka, M.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tocci, M. D.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchida, H.

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, and J.- Kasai, “Cross-phase-modulation-based wavelength conversion using intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 751–753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedmann, J.

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xing, A. M.

Yoshida, H.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. Res. (1)

T. Mizumoto, Y. Akano, K. Tamura, and M. Yoshimura, “DFB waveguide all-optical switching devices employing pump-induced refractive index change in GaInAsP,” Adv. Mater. Res. 31, 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. G. Lim, “Plasma dispersion effect in heavily doped antimony-based passive optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, T. Simoyama, H. Tsuchida, S. Namiki, C. G. Lim, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “All-optical demultiplexing of 160 - 10 Gbit/s signals with Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch utilizing intersubband transition in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, “Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP-InP high mesa waveguide with vertically etched Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 706–715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Effects of two-photon absorption on pump-induced refractive-index change in AlAsSb–InGaAs–AlAs optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 523–530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J.- Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, “H. Ishikawa, “Absorption dynamics in all-optical switch based on intersubband transition in InGaAs–AlAs–AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 604–606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. L. Chuang and D. Ahn, “Optical transitions in a parabolic quantum well with an applied electric field-analytical solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(7), 2822 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fedoryshyn, M. Beck, P. Kaspar, and H. Jaeckel, “Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Lim, “Characteristics of the ultrafast all-optical cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double-quantum-well optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 103109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Cristea, Y. Fedoryshyn, and H. Jäckel, “Growth of AlAsSb/InGaAs MBE-layers for all-optical switches,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 544–547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ishikawa, H. Tsuchida, K. S. Abedin, T. Simoyama, T. Mozume, M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Hasama, “Ultrafast all-optical refractive index modulation in intersubband transition switch using InGaAs/AlAs/ AlAsSb quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), L157–L160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, M. Nagase, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Mechanism of ultrafast modulation of the refraction index in photoexcited InxGa1−xAs/AlAsySb1−y quantum well waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, S. Gozu, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Experimental and theoretical study of cross-phase modulation in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells with a AlGaAs coupling barrier,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(2), R1078–R1081 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

J. Kasai, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, T. Simoyama, A. V. Gopal, and H. Ishikawa, “Optical quality improvement of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(2), 368–371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical signal processing devices”, chapter 5, ISBN 978–0-470–51820–5, Wiley (2008).

Quantum well simulations were performed with the use of the software provided by Professor J. Faist from ETH Zürich, Switzerland.

P. Ma, Y. Fedoryshyn, and H. Jäckel, “Detailed analysis of all-optical switches based on intersubband cross modulation in InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb double coupled quantum wells,” to be published.

T. Mizumoto, J.-K. Seo, and N. Tanaka, “All-optical inverting response in a GaInAsP/InP DFB waveguide,” in Proceeding of the 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2005), pp. 148–149.

M. Nagase, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, H. Kawashima, T. Mozume, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Fabrication of All-Optical Switch Based on Intersubband Transition in InGaAs/AlAsSb Quantum Wells with DFB Structure,” in Proceedings of 20th IEEE International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Material. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp. 1092–8669.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the DFB grating WG AOS; (b) Schematic diagram of the operation principle of the DFB grating WG AOS under transmission mode. The band edges of the DFB grating WG for the signal light are shifted by pumping; (c) Schematic diagram of the operation principle of the DFB grating WG AOS under reflection mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Conduction band energy band diagram of the InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb CDQWs, the calculated band energies, and the Γ-point effective masses; (b) FTIR spectroscopy of the ISB absorption of the fabricated active sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated time evolution of refractive index change for TE polarized light due to the carrier plasma effect; (b) The pumping light intensity dependent refractive index change due to carrier plasma effect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated refractive index change due to the interband dispersion effect with different probe light photon energy; (b) The time evolution of the refractive index change due to plasmas dispersion, interband dispersion and the sum of both.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross section of slab waveguide design with TE fundamental mode profiles; (b) 3D schematic illustration of the device design with integrated lateral DFB structures. The waveguide parameters, the width W, the grating depth ΔW and the grating period Λ, are indicated; (c) The band edge shift of the DFB grating WG as a function of the effective refractive index change for 40 μm long DFB WG simulated with 2D FDTD approach. The durations of the Gaussian-shape pulses, which possess the same FWHM and technical bandwidths as the band edge shifts, are also plotted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the DFB grating WG AOS with different operating probe pulses: the band edge of DFB grating WG before pumping (solid black), after pumping (dotted black); probe pulse (solid red). (a) probe pulse with proper central wavelength and critical spectral width; (b) (c) inappropriate probe pulse with wide spectral width (and subsequently the pulse duration). The operating windows are indicated by shading.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM images of the fabricated DFB WG switch design (a) the cross section of the slab WG in the access taper section; (b) top view of the DFB structures with ΔW = 0.8 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement setup used for the pump-probe study

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) The TE CW light transmission spectra in the absence of pumping light through the 400 μm long DFB WGs with different grating periods Λ. The transmission is normalized to the through access WGs on the same chip without embedded DFB grating structures. Transmission dips correspond to the stop bands of the DFB structures; (b) The TE CW light transmission spectra of DFB WGs with different length L and grating depth ΔW; (c) The smoothed TE CW light transmission spectra (line with open interior symbols) with different pulsed TM pumping light intensities for the 400 μm long DFB grating structure design with Λ = 245 nm. The solid scatters represent the extracted transmittance of signal light from dynamic pump-probe study at two wavelengths 1552.1 nm and 1552.2 nm. The colors of the scatters correspond to different pump intensities; (d) The FTIR characterized spectrum and its Gaussian fit of the signal pulse after transmitting through the DFB grating WG near the band edge wavelength position.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

TE probe transmission as a function of the pump-probe delay time for different pumping energies. (a) switch-off operation; (b) switch-on operation. The operation wavelengths are indicated in the figures.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) The simulated (blue solid) and extracted measured (red dashed) transmission spectra of the DFB grating WG, L = 400 μm, ΔW = 0.8 μm; (b) Simulated switch extinction ratios for different effective index changes and three different probing light wavelengths. Pulse duration is 6 ps; (c) Simulated switch extinction ratios and insertion losses for different DFB grating WG lengths with a fixed effective index change of 0.001; (d) Switch performance for different probe signal light wavelengths with a fixed effective index change of 0.001.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n p l a s m a ( ω p ) = i = 1 4 e 2 N i 2 n ε 0 m i ω p 2 ,
Δ n I B T ( ω p ) = ( ω I B T ω p ) c ω I B T Γ ( Γ / 2 ) 2 ( ω I B T ω p ) 2 + ( Γ / 2 ) 2 α I B T ,
t = 2 σ ( z + σ ) e + σ L ( z σ ) e σ L ,
I o u t ( ω ) = I i n ( ω ) T ( ω ) ,
η = 1 2 π I o u t _ w / ( ω ) d ω 1 2 π I o u t _ w / o ( ω ) d ω .

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