Abstract

In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel counters (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (crosstalk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out’ the crosstalk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions. The developed approach can be expanded to the analysis of higher-order intensity correlations by using just a single MPPC.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(5), 1129–1179 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picoseconds resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Hamamatsu web-page http://jp.hamamatsu.com/ .
  21. K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, S. Kamakura, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, “Development of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC),” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2007. NSS ’07. IEEE 2, 1511–1515 (2007).
  22. P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14539–14549 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1988).
  27. M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Otono, S. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, H. Oide, T. Suehiro, and H. Hano, “Study of MPPC at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Proceedings of International Workshop on New Photon-Detectors PD07 007 (2007).
  31. M. Akiba, K. Tsujino, K. Sato, and M. Sasaki, “Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16885–16897 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, K. Tsujino, K. Sato, and M. Sasaki, “Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16885–16897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(5), 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picoseconds resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

Afek, I.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agliati, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Allevi, A.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ambar, O.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picoseconds resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avenhaus, M.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banaszek, K.

Blanchet, J.-L.

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondani, M.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, B.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caccia, M.

Chekhova, M. V.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chludzinski, J. W.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chmill, V.

Clarke, R. M.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colling, P.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Devaux, F.

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamanti, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Fitch, M. J.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Funk, J. E.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furfaro, L.

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasparoni, S.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghioni, M.

Gisin, N.

Haderka, O.

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamar, M.

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ingargiola, A.

Inoue, K.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B. C.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ježek, M.

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Labanca, I.

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laiho, K.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lantz, E.

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legré, M.

Lita, A. E.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picoseconds resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(5), 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lundeen, J. S.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahoney, L. J.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, S.

McIntosh, K. A.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Micuda, M.

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. W.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, W. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Natan, A.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakley, D. C.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(5), 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-W.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perina, J.

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramilli, M.

Rech, I.

Rochas, A.

Romani, R. W.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosemberg, D.

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Sato, K.

Shields, A. J.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, C.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliwa, C.

Spinelli, R.

Steinberg, A. M.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, S.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsujino, K.

Ursin, R.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verghese, S.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Walther, P.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R. D.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Zeilinger, A.

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

E. Waks, K. Inoue, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Walther, J.-W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, “De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state,” Nature 429(6988), 158–161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state,” Nature 429(6988), 161–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

O. Haderka, J. Perina, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Direct measurement and reconstruction of nonclassical features of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosemberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Mičuda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J.-L. Blanchet, F. Devaux, L. Furfaro, and E. Lantz, “Measurement of sub-shot-noise correlations of spatial fluctuations in the photon-counting regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analsis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q–73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(5), 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picoseconds resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Hamamatsu web-page http://jp.hamamatsu.com/ .

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, S. Kamakura, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, “Development of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC),” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2007. NSS ’07. IEEE 2, 1511–1515 (2007).

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1988).

H. Otono, S. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, H. Oide, T. Suehiro, and H. Hano, “Study of MPPC at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Proceedings of International Workshop on New Photon-Detectors PD07 007 (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online). An experimental histogram of the MPPC output for the signal mode of PDC (at 500nm) resulting in ~0.012 photons per pulse. The raw signal (red fill color) and the MPPC dark noise, which also includes the optical noise of the PDC setup (black fill color) were acquired for 106 shots of the pump laser. Inset is the extended part of the histogram, which shows the vacuum component.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup (Color online). The 4-th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm is used to pump BBO crystals where PDC occurs. The pump intensity is controlled by a half wave plate (HWP) and a polarizing beam splitter (PBS). The collinear PDC is coupled into a single-mode fiber (SM fiber). In experiments with the coherent state a cw Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm is modulated by AOM and diverted by the flipping mirror (FM1). The flipping mirror (FM2) is used to address the beam to either the MPPC or the HBT scheme consisting of a nonpolarizing 50/50 beam splitter (NPBS), two APDs (APD1, APD2), and a coincidence circuit (&). UVM is a pump rejection mirror; IF are narrowband interference filters; ND, neutral density filter; L, a lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online). Dependence of g (2) on the mean number of photocounts per pulse, obtained via MPPC measurements of the coherent state (black dashed trace, squares) and the signal radiation of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state (blue solid trace, triangles). The curves are experimental fits with the corresponding parameters given in Table 1. Inset: the g (2) dependence at large numbers of photocounts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online). Dependence of g (2) on the mean number of photocounts per pulse, obtained via MPPC measurements of the coherent state (black dashed trace, squares) and the single-mode squeezed vacuum state (red solid trace, circles). The curves are experimental fits with the corresponding parameters given in Table 1, 2. Inset: the g (2) dependence at large numbers of photocounts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online). Comparison of the dependence of the inferred g (2) on the mean number of photocounts per pulse for single-mode squeezed vacuum, measured by the MPPC (red solid trace), with the one obtained with a traditional HBT setup (black dashed trace, squares). The functions are presented in Table 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compilation of the Fitting Results a of the Dependencies in Fig. 3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Compilation of the Fitting Results of the Dependencies in Figs. 4-5.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( l ) = a + l a l a + a l ,
| ψ s , i = n = 0 C n | n s | n i .
| ψ = n = 0 C 2 n | 2 n .
| ψ c o h = n = 0 C n | n .
g ( 2 ) = 2 k = 2 ( k 2 ) N k ( k = 1 k N k ) 2
g ( l ) = m l ( m l ) k = l ( k l ) N k ( k = 1 k N k ) l
N k , D N = N k + n k ,
N k , C T , D N = N k , C T + n k , C T .
N k , C T = q = 0 k M k , q N q ,
M k , q = ( q k q ) P k q ( 1 P ) 2 q k ,
N k , C T = N k k P N k + ( k 1 ) P N k 1 ,
N T o t a l , C T = k = 1 k N k , C T = ( 1 + P ) k = 1 k N k .
g ( 2 ) = ( 1 + 2 P ) ( 1 + P ) 2 g 0 ( 2 ) + 2 P ( 1 + P ) 1 N T o t a l , C T ,

Metrics