Abstract

Building on the work of Alnaser et al. [Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004)], we devise an improved method for an in-situ measurement of the peak intensity in a focused, femtosecond infrared laser pulse. The method is shown to be effective with both photoion and photoelectron imaging devices. The model used to fit the experimental data has no unphysical free parameters used in fitting. The accuracy of the fit is 4% and the overall accuracy of the measurement is 8%.

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  1. A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, and A. Szöke, “Measurement of the local laser intensity by photoelectron energy shifts in multiphoton ionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 344–349 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Multiphoton Processes in Atoms , 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000).
  10. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1207–1211 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).
  13. L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Eppink and D. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3477 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  18. S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhoffer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of noble gases by coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858–867 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences , 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

2010 (1)

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Eppink and D. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (3)

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, and A. Szöke, “Measurement of the local laser intensity by photoelectron energy shifts in multiphoton ionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 344–349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1983 (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1854 (1)

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Akagi, H.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Arissian, L.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhoffer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of noble gases by coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858–867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences , 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhoffer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of noble gases by coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858–867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Cormier, E.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1207–1211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Multiphoton Processes in Atoms , 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

Dörner, R.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eppink, A.

A. Eppink and D. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frasinski, L. J.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hankin, S. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jagutzki, O.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1207–1211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Multiphoton Processes in Atoms , 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

Langley, A. J.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lompre, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meckel, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, V.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhoffer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhoffer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of noble gases by coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858–867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otobe, T.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, D.

A. Eppink and D. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

Posthumus, J. H.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences , 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schöffler, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schössler, S.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, A.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smeenk, C.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Sokolov, A. V.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spielberger, L.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staudte, A.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhoffer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of noble gases by coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858–867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szöke, A.

Taday, P. F.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. K.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. R.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trallero, C.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, F.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, T.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiehle, R.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzel, B.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (3)

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42, 185402 (2009).

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” J. Phys. B 16(8), 1363–1381 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski, and K. Codling, “One and two-colour studies of the dissociative ionization and coulomb explosion of h 2 with intense ti:sapphire laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 30, 5755–5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a momentum microscope to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Laser peak intensity calibration using recoil-ion momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhoffer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instruments (1)

A. Eppink and D. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Other (2)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences , 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Multiphoton Processes in Atoms , 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the experiment. The laser pulse propagates along the z-axis; at the focus, it overlaps the molecular beam, which propagates along x. Charged particles (electrons or ions) are accelerated towards the detector by an electric field parallel to the y axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional projections of 3-D H 2 + momentum distributions, and their respective integrals. dN/dpz is the approximately Gaussian curve which gives the quantum uncertainty due to strong field ionization [13]. dN/dpx is thermally blurred so much information is lost. However, integrating over this direction yields curves with low uncertainty. The inset figure shows a photoelectron momentum spectrum of from Ar ionized under similar laser parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative yield from the laser focus integrated in space and time. The curves correspond to the function in Eq. (1) for three different values of the peak intensity, I 0. The medium was neutral argon (Ip = 15.76 eV, Z = 1) and the pulse was circularly polarized.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated momentum distributions fit to Ar photoelectron spectra at 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. Curve labels: (a) Model including the lateral distribution, volume and time integration; (b) with lateral distribution, without volume or time integration; (c) with volume and time integration, without lateral distribution; (d) without volume or time integration or lateral distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation between pulse energy and measured peak intensity for the electron experiment (15 fs pulse). At low pulse energy the intensity increases linearly with energy. Once saturation is reached, the relationship deviates from linear.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Goodness of fit for Ar at 800 nm over a range of laser intensities. The reduced χ 2 statistic is shown for fitting with different models. Inset: Example χ 2 function for a single spectrum at 2.55 ×1014 W cm−2. Model labels: (a) With lateral distribution, volume and time integration; (b) with lateral distribution, without volume or time integration; (c) with volume and time integration, without lateral distribution; (d) without volume or time integration or lateral distribution.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N d I = ( 1 exp [ W [ I ( t ) d t ] ] ) F ( I ) .
F ( I ) π z 0 w 0 2 3 1 I 5 / 2 ( I 0 f ( t ) + 2 I ) ( I 0 f ( t ) I ) 1 2 d t .
W ( I ) I C 1 e C 2 I ,
I avg = 1 N 0 I 0 I d N d I d I .
h ( I , p ) = 1 σ π exp [ ( p I ω ) 2 / σ 2 ] ,
d N d p = d N d I h ( I , p ) d I .
d N d p y = d N d I h ( I , p ) d I d p x
d N d p y = { A I avg / ω ( I avg / ω 2 p y 2 ) 1 / 2 | p y | < I avg / ω 0 else
F ( p y ) = A d N d p y ( I ) + B .

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