Abstract

We theoretically investigate filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in air in the mid-infrared regime under conditions in which the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) is anomalous. When a high-power, ultra-short mid-infrared laser beam centered at 3.1-μm forms a filament, a spatial solitary wave is stabilized by the plasma formation and propagates several times its diffraction length. Compared with temporal self-compression in gases due to plasma formation and pulse splitting in the normal-GVD regime, the minimum achievable pulse duration (∼ 70 fs) is limited by the bandwidth of the anomalous-GVD region in air. For the relatively high powers, multiple pulse splitting due to the plasma effect and shock formation is observed, which is similar to that which occurs in solids. Our simulations show that the energy reservoir also plays a critical role for longer propagation of the air filament in the anomalous-GVD regime.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou,“Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-20-1-73 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–65 (1996), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-21-1-62 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-5-304 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-466 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).
  12. P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, for example, The Supercontinuum Laser Source , ed. by R. R. Alfano (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
  17. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. D. Moll and A. L. Gaeta, “Role of dispersion in multiple-collapse dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29, 995–997 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-9-995 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulses at 1.5 um,” Opt. Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5731 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, A. Matijošius, R. Piskarskas, F. Bragheri, A. Averchi, and P. Di Trapani, “Characterization of conical emission of light filaments in media with anomalous dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 581–584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-24-3-581 .
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band, “Effects of self-steepening and self-frequency shifting on short-pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4791 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Self-channeling of ultrashort laser pulses in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 065601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Although 3-D optical bullets are predicted to be unstable and have not been experimentally observed, several approaches have been theoretically proposed recently. For example, see [27–30].
  27. M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Torner and Y. V. Kartashov, “Light bullets in optical tandems,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1129–1131 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-7-1129 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Chen and J. M. Dudley, “Spatiotemporal nonlinear optical self-similarity in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. L. Gaeta and F. W. Wise, Comment on “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 229401 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. M. Kovachev, “Collapse arrest and self-guiding of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 10318–10323 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10318 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemp. Phys. 49, 179 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. O. Chalus, A. Thai, P. K. Bates, and J. Biegert, “Six-cycle mid-infrared source with 3.8 μJ at 100 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3204–3206 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-19-3204 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, P. Arpin, M. Gerrity, M. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. Popmintchev, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrafast X-rays from mid-IR lasers,” in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HThB5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=HILAS-2011-HThB5 .
  39. N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274–276 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-274 . .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  43. L. T. Vuong, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. P. Hauri, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral reshaping and pulse compression via sequential filamentation in gases,” Opt. Express 16, 390–401 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-390 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  45. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  48. We calculate the dispersion parameters up to sixth-order order since the formula for the refractive index of air (n0) is a function of the fifth-order Tayolor expansion in Ref. [49] and thus the wavelumber (k = ωn0/c) is a sixth-order function of the laser angular frequency.
  49. R. J. Mathar, “Refractive index of humid air in the infrared: model fits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 470 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  50. R. J. Mathar, “Calculated refractivity of water vapor and moist air in the atmospheric window at 10 μm,” Appl. Opt. 43, 928 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. See, for example, http://irina.eas.gatech.edu/irina/eas8803_fall2009/Lec6.pdf .
  52. G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “On the critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25, 335–337 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-5-335 .
    [CrossRef]
  53. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  54. A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  55. G. P. AgrawalNolinear Fiber Optics , (Academic Press, 2007).
  56. M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  57. M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-6-590 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  59. A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  61. W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-19-2602 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Z. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. Xi, Z. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Energy interchange between large-scale free propagating filaments and its background reservoir,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 499–502 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-26-3-499 .
    [CrossRef]

2010

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. M. Dudley, “Spatiotemporal nonlinear optical self-similarity in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemp. Phys. 49, 179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. J. Mathar, “Refractive index of humid air in the infrared: model fits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Self-channeling of ultrashort laser pulses in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Mathar, “Calculated refractivity of water vapor and moist air in the atmospheric window at 10 μm,” Appl. Opt. 43, 928 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. L. Gaeta and F. W. Wise, Comment on “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 229401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band, “Effects of self-steepening and self-frequency shifting on short-pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

(Vern) Schlie, L. A.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemp. Phys. 49, 179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. AgrawalNolinear Fiber Optics , (Academic Press, 2007).

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y. B.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Band, Y. B.

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band, “Effects of self-steepening and self-frequency shifting on short-pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belic, M.

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Self-channeling of ultrashort laser pulses in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, R.

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Briscoe, E.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, I. B.

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and J. M. Dudley, “Spatiotemporal nonlinear optical self-similarity in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clement, T. S.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cleon, L.-M.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiComo, D. P.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemp. Phys. 49, 179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

S. Chen and J. M. Dudley, “Spatiotemporal nonlinear optical self-similarity in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenmann, S.

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernsler, R. F.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiess, M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R. P.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta and F. W. Wise, Comment on “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 229401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaižauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, D.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D. F.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaganovich, D.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kapetanakos, C. A.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koprinkov, I. G.

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lehmeier, J.

J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Leupacher, W.

J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mathar, R. J.

R. J. Mathar, “Refractive index of humid air in the infrared: model fits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mathar, “Calculated refractivity of water vapor and moist air in the atmospheric window at 10 μm,” Appl. Opt. 43, 928 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Nuter, R

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peñano, J.

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peñano, J. R.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, N.

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierlot, P.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Reiter, F.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ronneberger, F.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Salmon, E.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schweinberger, W.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shlenov, S. A.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Self-channeling of ultrashort laser pulses in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stahlkopf, K.

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamošauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, A.

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A. C.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trippenbach, M.

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band, “Effects of self-steepening and self-frequency shifting on short-pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, N. L.

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Werner, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wille, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Winn, W.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

A. L. Gaeta and F. W. Wise, Comment on “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 229401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T.-T.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, R.-H.

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. M.

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W.-P.

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. (Vern) Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, “High current permanent discharges in air induced by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Rev. Lett.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Rev. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atoms in high intensity mid-infrared pulses,” Contemp. Phys. 49, 179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

R. P. Fischer, A. C. Ting, D. F. Gordon, R. F. Fernsler, D. P. DiComo, and P. Sprangle, “Conductivity measurements of femtosecond laserplasma filaments,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 1430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

R. J. Mathar, “Refractive index of humid air in the infrared: model fits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelektron.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51 (1997).

Opt. Commun.

J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ting, I. Alexeev, D. Gordon, R. Fischer, D. Kaganovich, T. Jones, E. Briscoe, J. Peñano, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, “Measurements of intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in air,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 056705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band, “Effects of self-steepening and self-frequency shifting on short-pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Few-cycle spatiotemporal soliton wave excited with filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, “Investigations of nonlinear femtosecond pulse propagation with the inclusion of Raman, shock, and third-order phase effects,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3303–3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Self-channeling of ultrashort laser pulses in materials with anomalous dispersion,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belić, N. Petrović, W.-P. Zhong, R.-H. Xie, and G. Chen, “Analytical light bullet solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, E. A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatiotemporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. M. Dudley, “Spatiotemporal nonlinear optical self-similarity in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Koprinkov, A. Suda, P. Wang, and K. Midorikawa, “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3847–3850 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta and F. W. Wise, Comment on “Self-compression of high-intensity femtosecond optical pulses and spatiotemporal soliton generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 229401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, “Route to attosecond nonlinear spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Eisenmann, J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

L. Bergé, S Skupin, R Nuter, J Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am.

J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, K. Stahlkopf, and X. M. Zhao, “Lightning control with lasers,” Sci. Am. 277, 50–55 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. D. Moll and A. L. Gaeta, “Role of dispersion in multiple-collapse dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29, 995–997 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-9-995 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulses at 1.5 um,” Opt. Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5731 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, A. Matijošius, R. Piskarskas, F. Bragheri, A. Averchi, and P. Di Trapani, “Characterization of conical emission of light filaments in media with anomalous dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 581–584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-24-3-581 .
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-466 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou,“Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-20-1-73 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–65 (1996), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-21-1-62 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-5-304 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Kovachev, “Collapse arrest and self-guiding of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 10318–10323 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10318 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Chalus, A. Thai, P. K. Bates, and J. Biegert, “Six-cycle mid-infrared source with 3.8 μJ at 100 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3204–3206 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-19-3204 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, P. Arpin, M. Gerrity, M. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. Popmintchev, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrafast X-rays from mid-IR lasers,” in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HThB5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=HILAS-2011-HThB5 .

L. Torner and Y. V. Kartashov, “Light bullets in optical tandems,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1129–1131 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-7-1129 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Although 3-D optical bullets are predicted to be unstable and have not been experimentally observed, several approaches have been theoretically proposed recently. For example, see [27–30].

See, for example, The Supercontinuum Laser Source , ed. by R. R. Alfano (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. Xi, Z. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Energy interchange between large-scale free propagating filaments and its background reservoir,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 499–502 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-26-3-499 .
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-19-2602 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-6-590 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. AgrawalNolinear Fiber Optics , (Academic Press, 2007).

See, for example, http://irina.eas.gatech.edu/irina/eas8803_fall2009/Lec6.pdf .

G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “On the critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25, 335–337 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-5-335 .
[CrossRef]

We calculate the dispersion parameters up to sixth-order order since the formula for the refractive index of air (n0) is a function of the fifth-order Tayolor expansion in Ref. [49] and thus the wavelumber (k = ωn0/c) is a sixth-order function of the laser angular frequency.

L. T. Vuong, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. P. Hauri, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral reshaping and pulse compression via sequential filamentation in gases,” Opt. Express 16, 390–401 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-390 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274–276 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-274 . .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated group-velocity dispersion (GVD) for different values of the humidity using the Taylor expansion formula based on Ref. [49] at T = 17.5°C, p = 101325 Pa (standard atmospheric pressure).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated (a) peak intensity, (b) peak plasma density, (c) beam diameter (FWHM) of the fluence Fr =∫I(r,t)dt and (d) pulse duration (FWHM) of the fluence Ft =∫I(r,t)rdr as functions of normalized propagation distance for various input powers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spatio-temporal intensity profiles at various propagation distances ζ = z/Ldf for P/Pcr = 2. (b) On-axis spectra at various propagation distances for P/Pcr = 2. (c) Spatiotemporal intensity profiles of collapsing pulses at ζ = 0.54 for P/Pcr = 3, and (d) at ζ = 0.42 for P/Pcr =4

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (a) peak intensity, (b) beam diameter (FWHM) as functions of normalized propagation distance for P/Pcr = 6 and 8. (c) Examples of spatio-temporal intensity profiles at various distances for P/Pcr =6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Air filament formation and propagation with apertures of which sizes are 4 and 6 times of the minimum spot size (∼ 1.2-mm) at ζ = 0.3 for P/Pcr =6.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ ζ = i 4 ( 1 + i ω τ p τ ) 1 2 ψ + i L d f n = 2 n = 6 β n n ! ( i τ p τ ) n ψ + i ( 1 + i ω τ p τ ) L d f L n l ( | ψ | 2 2 + τ p 2 τ k τ e τ p τ k ( τ τ ) | ψ ( τ ) | 2 d τ ) ψ L d f 2 L m p ψ | ψ | 2 η τ L d f L p l ( i + 1 ω τ c ) η ( ψ + τ c ψ τ p τ 1 i ω τ c ) ,
η τ = | ψ | 2 m + α η | ψ | 2 ,

Metrics