Abstract

The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After the refinements of the microring’s working wavelength and in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.0×105 was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM with high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5 μm and an axial resolution of 8 μm, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation properties at depths in unfrozen tissue specimens or thicker tissue sections, which is not now imageable with current optical or acoustic microscopes of comparable resolution.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

2010

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Suarez and A. Y. Ting, “Fluorescent probes for super-resolution imaging in living cells,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9(12), 929–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. C. Beard, F. Perennes, and T. N. Mills, “Transduction mechanisms of the Fabry-Perot polymer film sensing concept for wideband ultrasound detection,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 46(6), 1575–1582 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkenazi, S.

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

Beard, P. C.

P. C. Beard, F. Perennes, and T. N. Mills, “Transduction mechanisms of the Fabry-Perot polymer film sensing concept for wideband ultrasound detection,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 46(6), 1575–1582 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. L.

T. Ling, S. L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer microring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19(2), 861–869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Suarez, M.

M. Fernandez-Suarez and A. Y. Ting, “Fluorescent probes for super-resolution imaging in living cells,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9(12), 929–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

T. Ling, S. L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer microring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19(2), 861–869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, A. J.

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Huang, S. W.

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, S.

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Laufer, J.

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, T.

T. Ling, S. L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer microring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19(2), 861–869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell, A.

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mills, T. N.

P. C. Beard, F. Perennes, and T. N. Mills, “Transduction mechanisms of the Fabry-Perot polymer film sensing concept for wideband ultrasound detection,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 46(6), 1575–1582 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, M.

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ok, J. G.

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Park, H. J.

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perennes, F.

P. C. Beard, F. Perennes, and T. N. Mills, “Transduction mechanisms of the Fabry-Perot polymer film sensing concept for wideband ultrasound detection,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 46(6), 1575–1582 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Ting, A. Y.

M. Fernandez-Suarez and A. Y. Ting, “Fluorescent probes for super-resolution imaging in living cells,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9(12), 929–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Won Baac, H.

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Xie, Z.

Zhang, E.

Zhang, H. F.

Zhuang, X.

X. Zhuang, “Nano-imaging with Storm,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell; “Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5418–5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Huang, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, “Low-noise wideband ultrasound detection using polymer microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Won Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S. L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, “Carbon nanotube composite optoacoustic transmitters for strong and high frequency ultrasound generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 234104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

P. C. Beard, F. Perennes, and T. N. Mills, “Transduction mechanisms of the Fabry-Perot polymer film sensing concept for wideband ultrasound detection,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 46(6), 1575–1582 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7), 114–116 (2003).

Nat. Photonics

X. Zhuang, “Nano-imaging with Storm,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.

M. Fernandez-Suarez and A. Y. Ting, “Fluorescent probes for super-resolution imaging in living cells,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9(12), 929–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) schematic of a preliminary POPAM system based on a microring resonator. Figure (b) Scanning electron micrograph(SEM) of a polystyrene microring resonator with R=30 μm coupled with a straight waveguide. (c) SEM of the smooth sidewall of a cleaved polymer microring resonator. The height of the waveguide is around 1.4 μm. (d) maximum amplitude projection (MAP) image of the USAF resolution template group 7. (e) A-line signal along the Z axis of the image of the USAF resolution template with POPAM. (f) A-line signal along the Z axis of the image of the USAF resolution template based on conventional PAM with Onda transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MAPs on XY, XZ, YZ planes of the ex vivo images of the vasculature in a mouse bladder wall acquired with POPAM (upper row) using microring and conventional PAM using Onda transducer (lower row).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photos of mouse bladder ex vivo (a) and mouse ear in vivo (c). MAPs on XY planes from POPAM imaging mouse bladder ex vivo (b) and POPAM imaging mouse ear in vivo (d).

Equations (1)

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| P l ( k ) | = 2 | sin ( k l ) | k l ,

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