Abstract

This work presents an extensive investigation of the performance characteristics of a semiconductor-based Theta cavity design laser with an intra-cavity Fabry-Pérot etalon operating at 100 MHz repetition rate. The Theta laser being an external cavity harmonically mode-locked semiconductor laser exhibits supermode noise that impairs its performance. A fiberized Fabry-Pérot periodic filter inserted within the Theta laser cavity mitigates the contribution of the supermode noise to the pulse-to-pulse energy variance by 20 times. The laser has both a compressed output with picosecond pulse duration and a uniform intensity quasi-CW linearly chirped pulse output with 10 nm bandwidth. Long-term stability is attained by referencing the cavity length to the etalon using an intra-cavity Hänsch-Couillaud locking scheme.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. W. Lee, D. Mandridis, and P. J. Delfyett, “eXtreme chirped pulse oscillator operating in the nanosecond stretched pulse regime,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4766–4773 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: fundamental concepts and practical considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Chou, J. A. Conway, G. A. Sefler, G. C. Valley, and B. Jalali, “Photonic bandwidth compression front end for digital oscilloscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5073–5077 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Mandridis, M. Bagnell, I. Ozdur, and P. J. Delfyett, “Supermode noise spur suppression and frequency comb generation in a 100 MHz semiconductor-based Theta cavity laser using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot etalon,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 2010 Conference on(2010), pp. 1–2.
  7. D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, C. Williams, and P. J. Delfyett, “100 MHz chirped pulse and frequency comb laser source using an intra-cavity etalon and long-term stabilization,” in PS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 2010. IEEE(2010), p. TuY 5.
  8. K. Kim, S. Lee, and P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXtreme Chirped Pulse Amplification(X-CPA),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4600–4606 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Rana, H. L. T. Lee, R. J. Ram, M. E. Grein, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Characterization of the noise and correlations in harmonically mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(11), 2609–2621 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, M. Bagnell, and P. J. Delfyett, “Free spectral range measurement of a fiberized Fabry-Perot etalon with sub-Hz accuracy,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11264–11269 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, M. Bagnell, and P. J. Delfyett, “Free spectral range measurement of a fiberized Fabry-Perot etalon with sub-Hz accuracy,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11264–11269 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1992 (1)

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, M.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bagnell, M.

Chou, J.

Conway, J. A.

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, M. Bagnell, and P. J. Delfyett, “Free spectral range measurement of a fiberized Fabry-Perot etalon with sub-Hz accuracy,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11264–11269 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. Mandridis, and P. J. Delfyett, “eXtreme chirped pulse oscillator operating in the nanosecond stretched pulse regime,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4766–4773 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Lee, and P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXtreme Chirped Pulse Amplification(X-CPA),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4600–4606 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Gee, S.

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Heritage, J. P.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoghooghi, N.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huber, R.

Ippen, E. P.

Jalali, B.

Jiang, L. A.

Kim, K.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. L. T.

Lee, S.

Lee, S. W.

Mandridis, D.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ozdur, I.

D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, M. Bagnell, and P. J. Delfyett, “Free spectral range measurement of a fiberized Fabry-Perot etalon with sub-Hz accuracy,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11264–11269 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Rana, F.

Sefler, G. A.

Silberberg, Y.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

Valley, G. C.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and P. J. Delfyett, “Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 199–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A semiconductor-based 10-GHz optical comb source with sub 3-fs shot-noise-limited timing jitter and ~500-Hz comb linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (2)

D. Mandridis, M. Bagnell, I. Ozdur, and P. J. Delfyett, “Supermode noise spur suppression and frequency comb generation in a 100 MHz semiconductor-based Theta cavity laser using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot etalon,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 2010 Conference on(2010), pp. 1–2.

D. Mandridis, I. Ozdur, C. Williams, and P. J. Delfyett, “100 MHz chirped pulse and frequency comb laser source using an intra-cavity etalon and long-term stabilization,” in PS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 2010. IEEE(2010), p. TuY 5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scematic of the the Theta laser with an intra-cavity etalon and long-term referencing. BPF, optical band-pass filter; CFBG, chirped fiber Bragg grating; CIRC, optical circulator; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; FS, fiber stretcher; IM, electro-optic intensity modulator; OC, output coupler; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodetector; POL, polarizer; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of the compressed-port pulses. (a) Sampling scope trace acquired using a 15 GHz photodetector. (b) Photodetected RF spectrum. Note the absence of the supermode spurs on the red spectrum due to the filtering by the etalon. (The red spectrum has been shifted for viewing purposes).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the Theta laser’s stretched port. (a) Wide span optical spectra with and without the intra-cavity Fabry-Pérot Etalon. (b) High resolution optical spectra. The sidebands tones are artifacts of the measurement and the red line is vertically shifted (from −61dB) for viewing purposes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Theta laser power spectral density of the AM noise of the laser and integrated pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuation with and without the etalon. The supermode noise spurs are suppressed by >30 dB. The 10 kHz spike is technical noise and can be suppressed further. (b) Spectrogram of the heterodyne beat between a single combline of the Theta MLL and a narrow linewidth laser. Color code: rainbow [-91 dB,-61dB].

Metrics