Abstract

We investigate lasing from high-Q, polymeric goblet-type microcavities covered by an organic semiconductor gain layer. We analyze the optical modes in the high-Q cavities using finite element simulations and present a numerical method to determine the cutoff thickness of the gain layer above which the whispering gallery modes are strongly confined in this layer. Fabricated devices show reduced lasing thresholds for increasing gain layer thicknesses, which can be explained by a higher filling factor of the optical modes in the gain layer. Furthermore, reduced lasing threshold is accompanied by a red-shift of the laser emission.

© 2011 OSA

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  5. H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Choi, X. Zhang, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid silica-polymer ultra-high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 459–461 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2007 (5)

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Thilakan, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, “Fabrication and characterization of a high Q microdisc laser using InAs quantum dot active regions,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 143–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, D.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Atwater, H.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T. A.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

Cao, H.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chang, R. P. H.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Choi, H. S.

Christiansen, M. B.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eschenbaum, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, J.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gohn-Kreuz, C.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, T.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gundlach, D. J.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 143–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-S.

Hupp, J. T.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karl, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-D.

Kim, K.-D.

Kim, S.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-S.

Lee, S.-S.

Lemmer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lull, K.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazumder, M. M.

Min, B.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nienhaus, G. U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ostby, E. P.

Oxborrow, M.

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pomplun, J.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riel, H.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rieß, W.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rost, C.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruhstaller, B.

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasikala, G.

P. Thilakan, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, “Fabrication and characterization of a high Q microdisc laser using InAs quantum dot active regions,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schleede, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sih, V.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Son, G.-S.

Spillane, S. M.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, A.

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suemune, I.

P. Thilakan, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, “Fabrication and characterization of a high Q microdisc laser using InAs quantum dot active regions,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taketani, N.

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takezawa, Y.

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanno, S.

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thilakan, P.

P. Thilakan, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, “Fabrication and characterization of a high Q microdisc laser using InAs quantum dot active regions,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

E. P. Ostby and K. J. Vahala, “Yb-doped glass microcavity laser operation in water,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1153–1155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vannahme, C.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 143–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zschiedrich, L.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3666–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, S. Kim, K. Okamoto, L. Yang, A. Scherer, H. Atwater, and K. Vahala, “Ultralow threshold on-chip microcavity nanocrystal quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 143–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Grossmann, K. Lull, M. Hauser, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, H. Kalt, and U. Lemmer, “Diode-pumped organic semiconductor microcone laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 489–491 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. Takezawa, N. Taketani, S. Tanno, and S. Ohara, “Empirical estimation method of intrinsic loss spectra in transparent amorphous polymers for plastic optical fibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 46(10), 1835–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

P. Thilakan, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, “Fabrication and characterization of a high Q microdisc laser using InAs quantum dot active regions,” Nanotechnology 18(5), 055401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

T. A. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, D. J. Gundlach, H. Riel, S. Karg, C. Rost, and W. Rieß, “Investigation of internal processes in organic light-emitting devices using thin sensing layers,” Synth. Met. 138(1-2), 213–221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of an array of passive PMMA-microgoblets standing on silicon pedestals. (b) Transmission spectrum showing WGM-resonances with loaded Q factors of 3.2·106 and 2.0·106 inferred from the resonance linewidth, which is determined by a Lorenzian fit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Computational domain for the finite element simulations showing the modeled cavity geometry and materials. The inset shows an enlarged view of the cavity rim with the gain material Alq3:DCM on top of the PMMA-resonator and the initial triangulation for the computation. (b) Intensity distribution and resonance wavelengths of the TM0,0(274)-mode for three different thicknesses of the Alq3:DCM-layer. For a thickness of d = 200 nm of the Alq3:DCM-layer, the mode is guided within the gain layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of finite element calculations showing (a) the resonance wavelengths, (b) the mode volumes and the filling factors of the (c) TE0,0(274)- and (d) TM0,0(274)-modes as function of the Alq3:DCM-layer thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Input-output curves of microgoblet lasers with lasing thresholds of 67.9, 5.5 and 1.1 nJ covered with 40, 80 and 200 nm Alq3:DCM, respectively. (b) Multi-mode lasing spectrum above threshold of the sample with 200 nm Alq3:DCM with laser linewidths of 80 pm. (c) Comparison of the laser emission above threshold for the three Alq3:DCM-layer thicknesses shows a red-shifted gain spectrum for thicker gain layers.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V = ε | E ( r ) | 2 d V max { ε | E ( r ) | 2 } .
F g = g ε | E ( r ) | 2 d V ε | E ( r ) | 2 d V .

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