Abstract

We demonstrate that complex supercontinuum and few-cycle ultrashort laser pulses can be fully characterized by using a cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating with molecular alignment induced birefringence functioned as a gate. The temporal envelope and phase of the broadband supercontinuum pulse are retrieved by the principal component generalized projection algorithm. This technique shows advantages without phase-matching constraint that may limit the measurable spectral bandwidth, experimental robustness in operating through the whole transparent spectral region of the molecular gases, and intensity sensitivity to measure weak pulses which is inherited from the intrinsic linear process in recording the molecular birefringence induced polarization spectroscopy. Experimental measurements of a few-cycle pulse in the visible region of 525-725 nm confirm that the molecular alignment gating supports a full field characterization of the ultrashort pulse around 10 fs in duration.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, J. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by molecular alignment for ultraviolet femtosecond pulse measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Ultrafast optical imaging by molecular wakes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

2008 (2)

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, C. D'Amico, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), A63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and P. Kvam, “Determining error bars in measurements of ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

Ange, G.

Bai, X.

Baltuška, A.

Biegert, J.

Cai, H.

Castillejo, M.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-H.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Chudoba, C.

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

Crespo, H. M.

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D'Amico, C.

De Long, K. W.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

J. Wu, H. Cai, P. Lu, X. Bai, L. Ding, and H. Zeng, “Intense ultrafast light kick by rotational Raman wake in atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J.

Faucher, O.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2152–2154 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R. K.

Gu, X.

Guérin, S.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hay, N.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauslin, H. R.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Keller, U.

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimmel, M.

Ko, T. H.

Kohler, B.

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kvam, P.

Lavorel, B.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

J. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Ultrafast optical imaging by molecular wakes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, J. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by molecular alignment for ultraviolet femtosecond pulse measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, H. Li, X. Bai, and H. Zeng, “Elongation of femtosecond filament by molecular alignment in air,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21060–21065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Liu, J.

P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, J. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by molecular alignment for ultraviolet femtosecond pulse measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Ultrafast optical imaging by molecular wakes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

J. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Ultrafast optical imaging by molecular wakes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, J. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by molecular alignment for ultraviolet femtosecond pulse measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, P. Lu, X. Bai, L. Ding, and H. Zeng, “Intense ultrafast light kick by rotational Raman wake in atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Y. Tong, X. Yang, H. Cai, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Interaction of two parallel femtosecond filaments at different wavelengths in air,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3211–3213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marceau, C.

Mason, M. B.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mendonça, J. T.

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minemoto, S.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondelain, D.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Niedermeier, S.

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, P.

Pan, H.

J. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Ultrafast optical imaging by molecular wakes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lu, J. Liu, H. Li, H. Pan, J. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by molecular alignment for ultraviolet femtosecond pulse measurement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Y. Tong, X. Yang, H. Cai, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Interaction of two parallel femtosecond filaments at different wavelengths in air,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3211–3213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pashayan, Y. T.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Ranka, J. K.

Renard, M.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, V.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A. P.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Tong, Y.

Trebino, R.

Varma, S.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volk, R.

Wang, Z.

Weigand, R.

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

Wiersma, D. A.

Wilson, K.

Windeler, R. S.

Wolf, J. P.

Wu, J.

Xu, L.

Yang, X.

Yu, J.

Zeek, E.

Zeidler, D.

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Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic configuration of the experiment setup. BS: beam splitter; HWP1, HWP2: half-wave plate at 800 nm; TFP: thin film polarizer; GC1: Xe gas cell; GC2: CO2 gas cell; GP: polarizer; SP: spectrometer; (b) Measured CO2 alignment signal versus the time delay. The red-dashed curve is the retrieved gate with a FHWM of ~360 fs, which shows a well accordance to the measured one.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The wavelength response of the M-XFROG apparatus (olive-scattered dot). (b) The polarization modulated pulse power variation as a function of incident pulse power under different excitation intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The measured M-XFROG trace. (b) The retrieved M-XFROG trace of the SC pulse. (c) The retrieved SC intensity (blue-squared curve) and phase (red-circular curve) as a function of time. (d) The reconstructed (black-dashed curve) and the measured (black-solid curve) spectrum in Log scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The measured M-XFROG trace. (b) The retrieved M-XFROG trace of the ultrashort pulse. (c) The retrieved temporal profile (blue-squared curve) and phase (red-circular curve) of the ultrashort pulse, with error bars obtained using the bootstrap method. (d) The reconstructed (black-dashed curve) and the measured (red-solid curve) spectra of the ultrashort pulse.

Equations (1)

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I ( ω , τ ) = | + E ( t ) G ( t τ ) e i ω t d t | 2 .

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