Abstract

Long-wave infrared imaging is used for non-invasive assessment of the internal population of honey bee colonies. The radiometrically calibrated camera signal is related to the number of frames that are populated by bees inside each hive. This enables rapid measurement of population without opening the hive, which disturbs the bees and can endanger the queen. The best results are obtained just before sunrise, when there is maximum thermal contrast between the hive and the background. This technique can be important for bee hive monitoring or for applications requiring frequent hive assessment, such as the use of bees for detecting chemicals or explosives.

© 2010 OSA

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  20. G. Kastberger and R. Stachl, “Infrared imaging technology and biological applications,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 429–439 (2003).
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  21. M. Greco, R. Spooner-Hart, and P. Holford, “A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood, and activity using X-ray computerized tomography,” J. Apic. Res. 44(3), 97–100 (2005).

2010

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ellis, J. D. Evans, and J. Pettis, “Colony losses, managed colony population decline, and Colony Collapse Disorder in the United States,” J. Apic. Res. 49(1), 134–136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

E. K. Es'kov and V. A. Toboev, “Mathematical modeling of the temperature field distribution in insect winter clusters,” Biophysics (Oxf.) 54(1), 85–89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, and S. Piazzolla, “Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7862–7872 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-7862 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2003

G. Kastberger and R. Stachl, “Infrared imaging technology and biological applications,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 429–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Stabentheiner and S. Schmaranzer, “Thermographic determination of body temperatures in honey bees and hornets: calibration and applications,” Thermology 2(4), 563–572 (1987).

Bender, G.

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S. F. A.

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berenbaum, M. R.

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilimoria, S. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blazyte-Cereskiene, L.

L. Blazyte-Cereskiene and V. Buda, “Ability of honey bees to detect and recognize isomers of cresol,” Ekologija 53(3), 16–21 (2007).

Bromenshenk, J. J.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, D. D. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. H. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization lidar measurements of honey bees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5853–5863 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5853 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buda, V.

L. Blazyte-Cereskiene and V. Buda, “Ability of honey bees to detect and recognize isomers of cresol,” Ekologija 53(3), 16–21 (2007).

Bujok, B.

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlsten, J. L.

Carsten, J. L.

Chen, Y.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cox-Foster, D.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Crailsheim, K.

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cramer, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deshpande, S. V.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunkle, D. D.

Ellis, J. D.

J. D. Ellis, J. D. Evans, and J. Pettis, “Colony losses, managed colony population decline, and Colony Collapse Disorder in the United States,” J. Apic. Res. 49(1), 134–136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Es'kov, E. K.

E. K. Es'kov and V. A. Toboev, “Mathematical modeling of the temperature field distribution in insect winter clusters,” Biophysics (Oxf.) 54(1), 85–89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. D.

J. D. Ellis, J. D. Evans, and J. Pettis, “Colony losses, managed colony population decline, and Colony Collapse Disorder in the United States,” J. Apic. Res. 49(1), 134–136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firth, D. R.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frazier, J.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Frazier, M.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, S.

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greco, M.

M. Greco, R. Spooner-Hart, and P. Holford, “A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood, and activity using X-ray computerized tomography,” J. Apic. Res. 44(3), 97–100 (2005).

Gress, J.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haubruge, E.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C. B.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, D. D. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. H. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization lidar measurements of honey bees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5853–5863 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5853 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. S.

Holford, P.

M. Greco, R. Spooner-Hart, and P. Holford, “A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood, and activity using X-ray computerized tomography,” J. Apic. Res. 44(3), 97–100 (2005).

Hrassnigg, N.

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, T.

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, R. E.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, R. M.

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastberger, G.

G. Kastberger and R. Stachl, “Infrared imaging technology and biological applications,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 429–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinhenz, M.

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, M. M.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCubbin, P. E.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melton, C.

Mizutani, K.

Mullin, C.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Nehrir, A. R.

Nguyen, B. K.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Nugent, P. W.

Ohno, E.

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ono, M.

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Papst, T.

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pettis, J.

J. D. Ellis, J. D. Evans, and J. Pettis, “Colony losses, managed colony population decline, and Colony Collapse Disorder in the United States,” J. Apic. Res. 49(1), 134–136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pettis, J. S.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Piazzolla, S.

Pressl, H.

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pust, N. J.

Repasky, K. S.

Robinson, G. E.

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodacy, P. J.

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saegerman, C.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scheppele, R. S.

Schmaranzer, S.

A. Stabentheiner and S. Schmaranzer, “Thermographic determination of body temperatures in honey bees and hornets: calibration and applications,” Thermology 2(4), 563–572 (1987).

Seccomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seldomridge, N. L.

Shaw, J. A.

Skowronski, E.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spangler, L. H.

Spooner-Hart, R.

M. Greco, R. Spooner-Hart, and P. Holford, “A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood, and activity using X-ray computerized tomography,” J. Apic. Res. 44(3), 97–100 (2005).

Stabentheiner, A.

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Stabentheiner and S. Schmaranzer, “Thermographic determination of body temperatures in honey bees and hornets: calibration and applications,” Thermology 2(4), 563–572 (1987).

Stachl, R.

G. Kastberger and R. Stachl, “Infrared imaging technology and biological applications,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 429–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanford, M. F.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarpy, D. R.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Tautz, J.

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurairajah, B.

Toboev, V. A.

E. K. Es'kov and V. A. Toboev, “Mathematical modeling of the temperature field distribution in insect winter clusters,” Biophysics (Oxf.) 54(1), 85–89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, R.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

van Engelsdorp, D.

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Wanner, K. W.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, P. M.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wick, C. H.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. J.

Zulich, A. W.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput.

G. Kastberger and R. Stachl, “Infrared imaging technology and biological applications,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 429–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophysics (Oxf.)

E. K. Es'kov and V. A. Toboev, “Mathematical modeling of the temperature field distribution in insect winter clusters,” Biophysics (Oxf.) 54(1), 85–89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ekologija

L. Blazyte-Cereskiene and V. Buda, “Ability of honey bees to detect and recognize isomers of cresol,” Ekologija 53(3), 16–21 (2007).

J. Apic. Res.

J. D. Ellis, J. D. Evans, and J. Pettis, “Colony losses, managed colony population decline, and Colony Collapse Disorder in the United States,” J. Apic. Res. 49(1), 134–136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Greco, R. Spooner-Hart, and P. Holford, “A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood, and activity using X-ray computerized tomography,” J. Apic. Res. 44(3), 97–100 (2005).

J. Exp. Biol.

M. Kleinhenz, B. Bujok, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot bees in empty broodnest cells: heating from within,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(23), 4217–4231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stabentheiner, H. Pressl, T. Papst, N. Hrassnigg, and K. Crailsheim, “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(2), 353–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Ono, T. Igarashi, E. Ohno, and M. Sasaki, “Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets,” Nature 377(6547), 334–336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naturwissenschaften

B. Bujok, M. Kleinhenz, S. Fuchs, and J. Tautz, “Hot spots in the bee hive,” Naturwissenschaften 89(7), 299–301 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

PLoS ONE

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, C. H. Wick, M. F. Stanford, A. W. Zulich, R. E. Jabbour, S. V. Deshpande, P. E. McCubbin, R. A. Seccomb, P. M. Welch, T. Williams, D. R. Firth, E. Skowronski, M. M. Lehmann, S. L. Bilimoria, J. Gress, K. W. Wanner, and R. A. Cramer., “Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline,” PLoS ONE 5(10), e13181 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Engelsdorp, J. D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B. K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D. R. Tarpy, and J. S. Pettis, “Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481 (2009), doi: .
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

R. M. Johnson, J. D. Evans, G. E. Robinson, and M. R. Berenbaum, “Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(35), 14790–14795 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

P. J. Rodacy, S. F. A. Bender, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. Bender, “The training and deployment of honeybees to detect explosives and other agents of harm,” Proc. SPIE 4742, 474–481 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thermology

A. Stabentheiner and S. Schmaranzer, “Thermographic determination of body temperatures in honey bees and hornets: calibration and applications,” Thermology 2(4), 563–572 (1987).

Other

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems, paper II,” in Alternatives for landmine detection (Rand Corp., 2003), http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.apps.pdf .

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, S. D. Rice, R. T. Etter, S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, L. H. Spangler, and J. J. Wilson, “Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm .

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Six of the thirty-three bee hives used in this study, showing stacks of (a) 4, 3, and 2 hive bodies and (b) ten frames inside one hive body with its top removed (the two left-most frames are without bees, so would not have been included in the frame counts used in the analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Media 1) Radiometrically calibrated long-wave infrared image of the bee hives shown in the visible photograph of Fig. 1, with the color bar indicating radiance (W m−2 sr−1) Click the figure to play a time-lapse image sequence showing how the internal hive signature is overwhelmed by direct solar heating after sunrise at 6:30 AM (13 May 2010). With emissivity = 1, the radiance scale corresponds to temperatures of –12°C to 0°C; the air temperature was −4°C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Processed results for the 33 hives measured on the morning of 13 May 2010, plotted vs. normalized frame count (number of bee-filled frames in each hive stack, divided by the number of bodies in the stack): (a) mean hive back or front radiance; (b) mean hive back or front radiance minus the mean background radiance; (c) maximum radiance minus the minimum radiance; (d) standard deviation of the radiance across the hive back or front.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean radiance of the hive backs (blue diamonds) and fronts (red squares) measured approximately two hours after sunset on 12 May, showing a back-front asymmetry resulting from the sun shining on the west-facing hive back later in the afternoon.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean radiance for the hive entrances, plotted vs. normalized frame count (13 May am).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hive-radiance data for 12 May AM, 12 May PM, and 13 May AM: (a) mean radiance and (b) Mean radiance minus blackbody radiance at the ambient air temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots used to determine optimum threshold: (a) R2 values for linear fits of above-threshold pixel count with frame count; (b) resulting relationship that can be used to determine the optimum threshold from ambient air temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two image pairs are shown, each with a de-skewed and re-sampled thermal image on the left and the corresponding thresholded hive image on the right.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Above-threshold pixel count (average of hive fronts and backs) plotted vs. frame count.

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