Abstract

We report a physical mechanism leading to high phase retardation in slanted photonic nanostructures. The phenomenon is based on the waveguiding of the transverse electric polarization component inside the slanted pillars, while the transverse magnetic component is not guided. Such a mechanism leads to very high phase retardation even with shallow structures that are suitable also for lithographical mass production. We present physical principle, numerical analysis of the phenomenon and designs for half-wave retarders. As an experimental result, a slanted grating producing 177 degrees retardation and 95.5% efficiency is presented.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  2. D. C. Flanders, “Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492–494 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Passilly, K. Ventola, P. Karvinen, P. Laakkonen, J. Turunen, and J. Tervo, “Polarization conversion in conical diffraction by metallic and dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4258–4265 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact slanted grating couplers,” Opt. Express 12, 3313–3326 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Bonod, E. Popov, L. Li, and B. Chernov, “Unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons by slanted gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 11427–11432 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Li, “Fourier modal method for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345–355 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Levola, and P. Laakkonen, “Replicated slanted gratings with a high refractive index material for in and outcoupling of light,” Opt. Express 15, 2067–2074 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Päivänranta, N. Passilly, J. Pietarinen, P. Laakkonen, M. Kuittinen, and J. Tervo, “Low-cost fabrication of form-birefringent quarter-wave plates,” Opt. Express 16, 16334–16342 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2004

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact slanted grating couplers,” Opt. Express 12, 3313–3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Li, “Fourier modal method for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345–355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. C. Flanders, “Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492–494 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

Chernov, B.

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, “Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492–494 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, T.

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haggans, C. W.

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Isano, T.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, K.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwakami, N.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Kaneda, Y.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karvinen, P.

Kostuk, R. K.

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Laakkonen, P.

Levola, T.

Li, L.

N. Bonod, E. Popov, L. Li, and B. Chernov, “Unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons by slanted gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 11427–11432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, “Fourier modal method for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345–355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Päivänranta, B.

Passilly, N.

Pietarinen, J.

Popov, E.

Suzuki, N.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tervo, J.

Turunen, J.

Ventola, K.

Wang, B.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Flanders, “Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492–494 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, T. Fujita, and R. K. Kostuk, “Lamellar gratings as polarization components for specularly reflected beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 675–686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

L. Li, “Fourier modal method for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345–355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Isano, Y. Kaneda, N. Iwakami, K. Ishizuka, and N. Suzuki, “Fabrication of Half-wave Plates with Subwavelength Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5294–5296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

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