Abstract

We report measurements of crater diameter and surface ablation threshold as a function of laser fluence in porcine corneal stroma and fused silica with pulse durations of 7 fs (2.7 optical cycles), 30 fs and 100 fs at 800 nm. For laser pulses with Gaussian radial intensity profile, we show experimentally that the square of the crater diameter is a linear function of the logarithm of the fluence in fused silica, while it is closer to a linear function of the fluence in corneal stroma. Extrapolating these relations to zero diameter indicates that for both media the minimum fluence required for surface ablation is reduced with shorter pulse duration. A simple theoretical model suggests that this effect is due to a more significant contribution of photoionization as the laser pulse duration shortens.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (6)

P. Maier, F. Birnbaum, and T. Reinhard, “Therapeutischer Einsatz des Femtosekundenlasers in der Hornhautchirurgie,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 227(06), 453–459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farid and R. F. Steinert, “Femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 21(4), 288–292 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Macrae, “Thin-flap femtosecond LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(7), 469–470 (2010).
[PubMed]

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Reiter, U. Graf, M. Schultze, W. Schweinberger, H. Schroder, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Generation of sub-3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2248–2250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Giguère, B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M.-A. Houle, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Tempea, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, and F. Légaré, “Pulse compression of submillijoule few-optical-cycle infrared laser pulses using chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1894–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Olivié, D. Giguère, F. Vidal, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, O. Nada, and I. Brunette, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser ablation threshold of corneal stroma,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4121–4129 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

K. König, B. Wang, I. Riemann, and J. Kobow, “Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. F. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

1996 (1)

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, “Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by picosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(1), 91–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium: YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93(10), 1259–1269 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

Backus, S.

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H.-C.

Benedetti, E.

Bille, J. F.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. F. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, F.

P. Maier, F. Birnbaum, and T. Reinhard, “Therapeutischer Einsatz des Femtosekundenlasers in der Hornhautchirurgie,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 227(06), 453–459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bor, Z.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, “Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by picosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(1), 91–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, W. E.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunette, I.

Bussiere, B.

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

Cerullo, G.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chimier, B.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. K.

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colin, J.

A. Ertan and J. Colin, “Intracorneal rings for keratoconus and keratectasia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1303–1314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conrath, J.

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coustillier, G.

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Du, D.

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Elner, V. M.

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Ertan, A.

A. Ertan and J. Colin, “Intracorneal rings for keratoconus and keratectasia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1303–1314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farid, M.

M. Farid and R. F. Steinert, “Femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 21(4), 288–292 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasilov, S.

Giese, G.

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. F. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giguère, D.

Giguère, M.

Girard, G.

Goulielmakis, E.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, M. Schultze, W. Schweinberger, H. Schroder, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Generation of sub-3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2248–2250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, U.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, M.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. F. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium: YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93(10), 1259–1269 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hoffart, L.

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzfuss, J.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium: YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93(10), 1259–1269 (1986).
[PubMed]

Horvath, C.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houle, M.-A.

Hu, X. H.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, “Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by picosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(1), 91–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

Itina, T.

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, “Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by picosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(1), 91–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

Kastis, G. A.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kienberger, R.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, M. Schultze, W. Schweinberger, H. Schroder, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Generation of sub-3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2248–2250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobow, J.

K. König, B. Wang, I. Riemann, and J. Kobow, “Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

K. König, B. Wang, I. Riemann, and J. Kobow, “Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, M. Schultze, W. Schweinberger, H. Schroder, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Generation of sub-3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2248–2250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, R. M.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Lassonde, P.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium: YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93(10), 1259–1269 (1986).
[PubMed]

Lee, D.

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Giguère, B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M.-A. Houle, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Tempea, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, and F. Légaré, “Pulse compression of submillijoule few-optical-cycle infrared laser pulses using chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1894–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leray, A.

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Z.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

Liu, X.

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Loesel, F. H.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macrae, S.

S. Macrae, “Thin-flap femtosecond LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(7), 469–470 (2010).
[PubMed]

Maier, P.

P. Maier, F. Birnbaum, and T. Reinhard, “Therapeutischer Einsatz des Femtosekundenlasers in der Hornhautchirurgie,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 227(06), 453–459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matonti, F.

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Murnane, M.

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nada, O.

Nisoli, M.

Oh, S. H.

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivié, G.

Ozaki, T.

Proust, H.

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

Reinhard, T.

P. Maier, F. Birnbaum, and T. Reinhard, “Therapeutischer Einsatz des Femtosekundenlasers in der Hornhautchirurgie,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 227(06), 453–459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiter, F.

Ridings, B.

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. König, B. Wang, I. Riemann, and J. Kobow, “Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanner, N.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayegh, S.

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. E.

Schroder, H.

Schultze, M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, M. Schultze, W. Schweinberger, H. Schroder, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Azzeer, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Generation of sub-3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2248–2250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweinberger, W.

Sentis, M.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, A. D.

Spielmann, C.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

Stagira, S.

Steinert, R. F.

M. Farid and R. F. Steinert, “Femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 21(4), 288–292 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suárez, C.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(1), 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Tempea, G.

Tien, A.

F. H. Loesel, A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, R. M. Kurtz, S. Sayegh, and T. Juhasz, “Effect of reduction of laser pulse width from 100 ps to 20 fs on the plasma-mediated ablation of hard and soft tissue,” Proc. SPIE 3565, 116–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toetsch, S.

Turi, L.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, “Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by picosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(1), 91–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uteza, O.

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Utéza, O.

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

Villeneuve, D. M.

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium: YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93(10), 1259–1269 (1986).
[PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

Walter, M.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

K. König, B. Wang, I. Riemann, and J. Kobow, “Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5688, 288–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickler, L.

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. F. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Hoffart, H. Proust, F. Matonti, B. Ridings, and J. Conrath, “Short-term results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with the Femtec femtosecond laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(1), 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Sanner, O. Utéza, B. Chimier, M. Sentis, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, and J. C. Kieffer, “Toward determinism in surface damaging of dielectrics using few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

N. Sanner, O. Uteza, B. Bussiere, G. Coustillier, A. Leray, T. Itina, and M. Sentis, “Measurement of femtosecond laser-induced damage and ablation thresholds in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 889–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cornea (1)

S. K. Choi, D. Lee, J. H. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “A novel technique: eccentric lamellar keratolimbal allografting using a femtosecond laser,” Cornea 29(9), 1062–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Farid and R. F. Steinert, “Femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 21(4), 288–292 (2010).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtoseconds lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Z. Lin, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, and R. F. Steinert, “Time-resolved studies of Nd:YAG laser-induced breakdown. Plasma formation, acoustic wave generation, and cavitation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1771–1777 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

A. Ertan and J. Colin, “Intracorneal rings for keratoconus and keratectasia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1303–1314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (2)

R. M. Kurtz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Photodisruption in the human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13(7), 653–658 (1997).

S. Macrae, “Thin-flap femtosecond LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(7), 469–470 (2010).
[PubMed]

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. (1)

P. Maier, F. Birnbaum, and T. Reinhard, “Therapeutischer Einsatz des Femtosekundenlasers in der Hornhautchirurgie,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 227(06), 453–459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up: BS: beam splitter; CM: chirped mirrors; Ge: Germanium plates; HF: hollow-core fiber; IA: interferometric autocorrelator; λ/2: half-wave plate; L: f = 1m lens; PD: photodiode; PM: 90° off-axis parabolic mirror; S: sample; TS: translation stage; W: wedges

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pictures of the craters produced in (a) fused silica using a 50 × microscope and (b) corneal stroma using a 20 × microscope, for three pulse durations and for several laser energies (left scale in μJ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Crater diameter squared as a function of laser fluence for fused silica. Lines were obtained by linear regression of the measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Crater diameter squared as a function of laser fluence for corneal stroma. The dots are the mean values of several measurements and the vertical error bars are estimates of the standard errors of the mean values. Lines were obtained by linear regression of the full set of measurements for all pulse durations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface ablation threshold for corneal stroma and fused silica at 7, 30 and 100 fs. The dashed lines represent fits using the model discussed in [25].

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fused silica: Linear regression coefficients (A, B) with standard errors, correlation coefficient (R), beam diameter (D 0), and threshold fluence (Fth )

Tables Icon

Table 2 Stroma: Linear regression coefficients (G, H) with standard errors, beam diameter (D 0), and threshold fluence (Fth ). The values of the correlation coefficient (R) in parentheses correspond to a fit according to Eq. (1)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters used in the model of [25] for fused silica and corneal stroma

Equations (2)

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D 2 = 1 2 D 0 2 ( ln F ln F t h )
D 2 F F t h

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