Abstract

X-ray microscopy based on Fresnel zone plates is a powerful technique for sub-100 nm resolution imaging of biological and inorganic materials. Here, we report on the modeling, fabrication and characterization of zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for the multi-keV regime (4―12 keV). We demonstrate unprecedented spatial resolution by resolving 15 nm lines and spaces in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, and focusing diffraction efficiencies of 7.5% at 6.2 keV photon energy. These developments represent a significant step towards 10 nm spatial resolution for hard X-ray energies of up to 12 keV.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ade and H. Stoll, “Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure microscopy of organic and magnetic materials,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 281–290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

P. Fischer, “Studying nanoscale magnetism and its dynamics with soft X-ray microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 44(7), 1900–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. Hornberger, M. Feser, and C. Jacobsen, “Quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 107(8), 644–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Schneider, “X-ray microscopy: methods and perspectives,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 376(5), 558–561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y.-K. Choi, T.-J. King, and C. Hu, “A spacer patterning technology for nanoscale CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(3), 436–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

C. Jacobsen and J. Kirz, “X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 5(8Suppl), 650–653 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ferrari, “Fast Hankel transform of order zero,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(8), 1812–1813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. C. Flanders and N. N. Efremow, “Generation of < 50 nm period gratings using edge defined techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1(4), 1105–1108 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aaltonen, T.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

H. Ade and H. Stoll, “Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure microscopy of organic and magnetic materials,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 281–290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

Chen, C. H.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. T.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, C. W.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Choi, T.-J. King, and C. Hu, “A spacer patterning technology for nanoscale CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(3), 436–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jonge, M. D.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denecke, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

Efremow, N. N.

D. C. Flanders and N. N. Efremow, “Generation of < 50 nm period gratings using edge defined techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1(4), 1105–1108 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

Feser, M.

B. Hornberger, M. Feser, and C. Jacobsen, “Quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 107(8), 644–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders and N. N. Efremow, “Generation of < 50 nm period gratings using edge defined techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1(4), 1105–1108 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gorelick, S.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, P.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzenko, V.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guzenko, V. A.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henrich, B.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzner, C.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornberger, B.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hornberger, M. Feser, and C. Jacobsen, “Quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 107(8), 644–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

Y.-K. Choi, T.-J. King, and C. Hu, “A spacer patterning technology for nanoscale CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(3), 436–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwu, Y.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hornberger, M. Feser, and C. Jacobsen, “Quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 107(8), 644–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, “Soft x-ray microscopy,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 44–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen and J. Kirz, “X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 5(8Suppl), 650–653 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Je, J. H.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeng, S. T.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

King, T.-J.

Y.-K. Choi, T.-J. King, and C. Hu, “A spacer patterning technology for nanoscale CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(3), 436–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

C. Jacobsen and J. Kirz, “X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 5(8Suppl), 650–653 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, P.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legnini, D.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leskela, M.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. M.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. J.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T. N.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, A.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maassdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margaritondo, G.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, A.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, D.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perciante, D.

Pfeiffer, F.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehbein, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Rishton, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sammelselg, V.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sassolini, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, “X-ray microscopy: methods and perspectives,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 376(5), 558–561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiue, J.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoll, H.

H. Ade and H. Stoll, “Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure microscopy of organic and magnetic materials,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 281–290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, J.

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110(9), 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, C. T.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. L.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. R.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. C.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, W.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm X-ray zone plates for X-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

J. Vila-Comamala, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, T. Pilvi, E. Färm, V. Guzenko, S. Gorelick, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, M. Ritala, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “High spatial resolution STXM at 6.2 keV photon energy,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

G. Schneider, “X-ray microscopy: methods and perspectives,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 376(5), 558–561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

J. Thieme, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, and D. Paterson, “X-ray spectromicroscopy--a tool for environmental sciences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(20), 6885–6889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

Y.-K. Choi, T.-J. King, and C. Hu, “A spacer patterning technology for nanoscale CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(3), 436–441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn.

P. Fischer, “Studying nanoscale magnetism and its dynamics with soft X-ray microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 44(7), 1900–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(8), G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

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