Abstract

We present low-cost texturing methods to produce different surface roughnesses on glass substrates. Using sand blasting, abrasion and wet etching we achieve roughnesses of about 50 nm to 250 nm (root mean squared roughness Rq). These textured substrates are used as extraction elements for guided modes and substrate modes in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We evaporate 50 nm of the high index material Ta2O5 on the textured substrate, which acts as waveguide layer, and flatten it with the transparent photoresist SU-8. On top of that, we fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs, which are characterized by electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements. The devices with rough interfaces obtain an up to 37.4% and 15.5% (at 20 mA/cm2) enhanced emission and it is shown that the enhancement is due to an increased outcoupling efficiency.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Gu, D. Garbuzov, P. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, and S. Forrest, “andM. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 396–398 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2, 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Chen and H. S. Kwok, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sandblasting substrates,” Opt. Express 18, 37–42 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(Part 1), 4125 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2, 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(Part 1), 4125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Araoka, F.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balthasar, G.

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bliznyuk, V.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brock, P.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P.

Carter, S.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Cheng, C.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colsmann, A.

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Do, H.

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gu, D. Garbuzov, P. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, and S. Forrest, “andM. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2, 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D.

Gerken, M.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gifford, D. K.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(Part 1), 4125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

Hall, D. G.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. K. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B.

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

Lee, M.-C. M.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinke, N.

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, B.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruhstaller, B.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoji, N.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, D.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, F.

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2, 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syao, K.-C.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vandersteegen, P.

P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-L.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1257–1261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1073–1081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 93111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(Part 1), 4125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33, 663 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2, 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440, 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Singh, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, and R. Baets, “Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Colsmann, F. Stenzel, G. Balthasar, H. Do, and U. Lemmer, “Plasma patterning of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1750 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a structured OLED. Please note, that the lateral and vertical lengths are not true to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM images of roughened glass substrates textured via sandblasting (a), grinding paste (b) and glass etching cream (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of the polished glass substrates textured via sandblasting (a) and glass etching cream (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM images of the photoresist-smoothed glass substrates textured via sandblasting (a), grinding paste (b) and glass etching cream (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

J-V-characteristics of the structured OLEDs and an unstructured reference device. The OLEDs reveal almost the same onset voltage. The reason for the difference of the curves for higher voltages is attributed to the different thicknesses of the PEDOT:PSS anodes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminous flux as a function of the current density. Those samples which have been modified by sandblasting and grinding paste perform better than the reference sample. The sample roughened with glass etching cream could not reach the efficiency of the reference device.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Luminous flux as a function of the electrical power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angle resolved photoluminescence (PL) emission of the structured OLEDs and the unstructured reference device. The structured samples exhibit a higher intensity compared to the reference sample. This proves that roughening inner surfaces in OLEDs increases their outcoupling efficiency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Roughnesses Rq and Rt of all samples for each fabrication step.

Metrics