Abstract

In this study, GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with naturally formed oblique sidewall facets (OSFs) were fabricated through a selective regrowth process. The SiO2 mask layer was patterned on a heavily doped n-GaN template layer rather than on a sapphire substrate. As a result, the periphery of the LED included several OSFs around the regrown GaN mesa. While processing the device, dry etching was unnecessary for exposing the n-GaN underlying layer in order to form the n-type Ohmic contacts. This could be attributed to the fact that the n-GaN template layer with an electron concentration of around 8 × 1018/cm3 was exposed after the removal of the SiO2 mask layer. With an injection current of 20 mA, GaN-based LEDs with OSFs exhibited a 21% enhancement in light output compared with those that have vertical sidewall facets. The enhancement is attributed to the fact that photons extracted from OSFs can reduce internal absorption loss.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes, pp.150–160 (Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2006.)
  2. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. K. Sheu and G. C. Chi, “The doping process and dopant characteristics of GaN,” J. Phys. 14, R657 (2002).

2008 (1)

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. K. Sheu and G. C. Chi, “The doping process and dopant characteristics of GaN,” J. Phys. 14, R657 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bu, C. J.

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cha, O. H.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu and G. C. Chi, “The doping process and dopant characteristics of GaN,” J. Phys. 14, R657 (2002).

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuong, T. V.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M. S.

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. L.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. S.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ke, J. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, S.

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kou, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-S.

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. M.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C. Y.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu and G. C. Chi, “The doping process and dopant characteristics of GaN,” J. Phys. 14, R657 (2002).

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.-K.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. T.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S. H.

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Kim, T. V. Cuong, H. Jeong, S. H. Woo, O. H. Cha, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, and M. S. Jeong, “Spatial distribution of crown shaped light emission from a periodic inverted polygonal deflector embedded in an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/ Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, H. C. Cheng, G. C. Chi, C. J. Bu, and M. S. Feng, “Improved contact performance of GaN film using Si diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low- operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0. 3Ga0. 7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, ““High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. T. Lee, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride-based LEDs with textured side walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 750–752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN-based light-emitting diode structure with monolithically integrated sidewall deflectors for enhanced surface emission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1588–1590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output Enhancement in a Nitride Based Light-emitting Diode with 22° Undercut Side Walls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. Kato, S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Selective growth of wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1−xN on GaN/sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 144(3-4), 133–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

J. K. Sheu and G. C. Chi, “The doping process and dopant characteristics of GaN,” J. Phys. 14, R657 (2002).

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes, pp.150–160 (Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2006.)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic structure of LED-I and photon paths in LED-I; (b) detailed epitaxial layer structure; (c) typical tilted-angle-view SEM image of LED-I; (d) typical SEM image of LED-I after the formation of Cr/Au electrodes; (e) enlarged tilted-angle-view SEM image taken on the regrown area of LED-I after the removal of SiO2 mask layer; and (f) cross-section view SEM image of LED-I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical light output-current (L-I) characteristics of LED-I and LED-II with bare-chip form; the inset shows the typical beam patterns taken from LED-I and LED-II. These LEDs were all bonded on the TO 66.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

I-V and dynamic resistance characteristics of the LED-I and LED-II.

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