Abstract

Analysis of the various light extraction efficiency enhancement mechanisms for the GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated. Experiments utilized the imprinting technique to fabricate pyramid and inverted pyramid microstructures. Roughness treatment was then integrated with these imprinting structures on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) LEDs. An approximate 33% improvement in light output power was obtained using the pyramid profile when compared with the planar LED. This was nearly 15% higher than that of the inverted pyramid profile. The roughness effect provided an approximate 5% efficiency enhancement. The total light enhanced efficiency increased to 85.9% by integrating the imprinting pyramid structure, PSS, and surface roughness.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Epilayers with Stripe Pattern Transferred from Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(9), H638–H641 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Epilayers with Stripe Pattern Transferred from Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(9), H638–H641 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. C.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. T.

Ciou, M. J.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng.in press.

Craford, M. G.

Dai, J. J.

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y. K.

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, K. F.

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, T.

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Harbers, G.

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. S.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng.in press.

Huang, S. C.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. Y.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ke, J. C.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krames, M. R.

Kumnorkaew, P.

Kuo, C. W.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. T.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Epilayers with Stripe Pattern Transferred from Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(9), H638–H641 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. C.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Epilayers with Stripe Pattern Transferred from Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(9), H638–H641 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng.in press.

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. F.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, S. H.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. C.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. H.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. H.

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Tansu, N.

Tong, H.

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. K.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wen, T. C.

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. J.

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J. H.

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. F. Lin, Z. J. Yang, J. H. Zheng, and J. J. Dai, “Enhanced light output in nitride-based light-emitting diodes by roughening the mesa sidewall,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2038–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. H. Horng, W. K. Wang, S. C. Huang, S. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, C. F. Lin, and D. S. Wuu, “Growth and characterization of 380-nm InGaN/AlGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 219–222 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “Light Extraction Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Epilayers with Stripe Pattern Transferred from Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(9), H638–H641 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, B. J. Su, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Chemical Wet-Etched Patterned Sapphire Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1106–G1111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng.in press.

Opt. Express (3)

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, Y. K. Su, C. S. Chang, T. C. Wen, S. C. Shei, J. C. Ke, C. W. Kuo, S. C. Chen, and C. H. Liu, “Nitride-based LEDs fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 47(9), 1539–1542 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow to prepare a microstructure with a roughness effect on PSS LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM microphotograph of silicon concave mold and (b) SEM microphotograph of PDMS convex mold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM microphotograph of imprinting pyramids, and (b) SEM microphotograph of imprinting inverted pyramid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM microphotograph of the imprinting inverted pyramid before and after roughness treatment. (b) SEM microphotograph of the imprinting pyramid before and after roughness treatment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power versus input current for the C group of Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Possible photon paths for planar PMMA on the LED. (b) Possible photon paths for roughened PMMA on the LED. (c) Possible photon paths for pyramid PMMA on the LED. (d) Comparison of possible photon paths for pyramid and inverted pyramid.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light output power versus input current for P group of Table 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM microphotograph of the pyramid arrays with small slanted angle.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Overview of the planar PMMA, imprinting PMMA and roughness treatment for conventional LEDs

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Table 2 Overview of the planar PMMA, imprinting PMMA and roughness treatment for PSS LEDs

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Table 3 Light output power and relative enhanced efficiency of C group LEDs

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Table 4 Light output power and relative enhanced efficiency of P group LEDs

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