Abstract

Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm−2, and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm2. Panels were mounted on a tracking station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than a month, while R2R encapsulated cells showed around 50% degradation after 6 months but suffered from poor performance due to de-lamination during panel production. A third generation of panels with various barrier layers was produced to optimize the choice of barrier foil and it was found that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Kippelen and J. L. Brédas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Gonzalez-Valls and M. Lira-Cantu, “Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(1), 19–34 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells. A review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 394–412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Bundgaard and F. C. Krebs, “Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(11), 954–985 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1636–1641 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. C. Krebs and K. Norrman, “Using light-induced thermocleavage in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(3), 877–887 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. C. Krebs, J. Fyenbo, and M. Jørgensen, “Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing,” J. Mater. Chem. (accepted).
  22. F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. D. Nielsen, C. Cruickshank, S. Foged, J. Thorsen, and F. C. Krebs, “Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2010.04.074 .
  24. M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

2010 (3)

F. C. Krebs and K. Norrman, “Using light-induced thermocleavage in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(3), 877–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (11)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1636–1641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells. A review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen and J. L. Brédas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

I. Gonzalez-Valls and M. Lira-Cantu, “Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(1), 19–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

E. Bundgaard and F. C. Krebs, “Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(11), 954–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aernouts, T.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alshareef, H. N.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atienzar, P.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernkopf, J.

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biancardo, M.

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J. L.

B. Kippelen and J. L. Brédas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bundgaard, E.

E. Bundgaard and F. C. Krebs, “Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(11), 954–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheyns, D.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dane, J. G. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Bettignies, R.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fyenbo, J.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Fyenbo, and M. Jørgensen, “Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing,” J. Mater. Chem. (accepted).

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gholamkhass, B.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginley, D. S.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Valls, I.

I. Gonzalez-Valls and M. Lira-Cantu, “Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(1), 19–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guillerez, S.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, O.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haschke, J.

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helgesen, M.

M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heston, N. C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holdcroft, S.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jannon, B.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, S.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Fyenbo, and M. Jørgensen, “Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing,” J. Mater. Chem. (accepted).

Katz, E. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

B. Kippelen and J. L. Brédas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kjar, T.

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kold, E.

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F.

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs and K. Norrman, “Using light-induced thermocleavage in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(3), 877–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1636–1641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells. A review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bundgaard and F. C. Krebs, “Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(11), 954–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Fyenbo, and M. Jørgensen, “Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing,” J. Mater. Chem. (accepted).

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Krieg, J.

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, J.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, J. M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laird, D.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, K.

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lianos, P.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lilliedal, M. R.

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Lira-Cantu, M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gonzalez-Valls and M. Lira-Cantu, “Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(1), 19–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liska, P.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lohwasser, W.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lungenschmied, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lutsen, L.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, M. V.

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Medford, A. J.

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Meyer, A.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. W.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, H.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. D.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Norrman, K.

F. C. Krebs and K. Norrman, “Using light-induced thermocleavage in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(3), 877–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Olson, D.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, M. S.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. R.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schleiermacher, H.-F.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlenker, C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S. E.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, R.

M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spangaard, H.

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spanggard, H.

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Storch, M.

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tipnis, R.

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tromholt, T.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuladhar, S. M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wadstrøm, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wienk, M. M.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Würfel, U.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Youngblood, W. J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, B.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces (1)

F. C. Krebs and K. Norrman, “Using light-induced thermocleavage in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(3), 877–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Energy Environ. Sci. (4)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen and J. L. Brédas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gonzalez-Valls and M. Lira-Cantu, “Vertically-aligned nanostructures of ZnO for excitonic solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(1), 19–34 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, “Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the ‘Lighting Africa’ initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (3)

F. C. Krebs, J. Fyenbo, and M. Jørgensen, “Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing,” J. Mater. Chem. (accepted).

M. Helgesen, R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 36–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

F. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Kjar, M. Biancardo, and J. Alstrup, “Large Area Plastic Solar Cell Modules,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 106–111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (11)

F. C. Krebs, M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, and J. Kristensen, “A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 422–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1636–1641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Tipnis, J. Bernkopf, S. Jia, J. Krieg, S. Li, M. Storch, and D. Laird, “Large-area organic photovoltaic module—Fabrication and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 442–446 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells. A review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bundgaard and F. C. Krebs, “Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(11), 954–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, J. Alstrup, H. Spangaard, K. Larsen, and E. Kold, “Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 293–300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, B. Gholamkhass, S. Holdcroft, C. Schlenker, M. E. Thompson, B. C. Thompson, D. Olson, D. S. Ginley, S. E. Shaheen, H. N. Alshareef, J. W. Murphy, W. J. Youngblood, N. C. Heston, J. R. Reynolds, S. Jia, D. Laird, S. M. Tuladhar, J. G. A. Dane, P. Atienzar, J. Nelson, J. M. Kroon, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, K. Tvingstedt, F. Zhang, M. Andersson, O. Inganäs, M. Lira-Cantu, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, T. Aernouts, D. Cheyns, L. Lutsen, B. Zimmermann, U. Würfel, M. Niggemann, H.-F. Schleiermacher, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, P. Lianos, E. A. Katz, W. Lohwasser, and B. Jannon, “A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1968–1977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lilliedal, A. J. Medford, M. V. Madsen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current-voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (accepted).

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, J. Haschke, M. Glatthaar, and A. Gombert, “Organic solar cell modules for specific applications – from energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7181–7187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. D. Nielsen, C. Cruickshank, S. Foged, J. Thorsen, and F. C. Krebs, “Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2010.04.074 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of process to convert R2R coated polymer solar cells into full size solar panels. Actual number of cells per module and modules per panel differs from that shown in the diagram. (b) Schematic (approximately to scale) of the layer structure for the panel, module, and solar cell. Amcor and Fasson refer to commercial PET encapsulation layers as described in the experimental details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The assembly of the module starts with laying the modules onto a glass panel covered with an EVA laminate sheet (a), after which electrical contacts are soldered onto the polymer modules (b). An EVA laminate sheet is placed over the modules (c) and a tetlar backing foil (black underside) is placed above the EVA (d). The panel is then heated to 150 °C for 30 minutes melting the EVA and laminating/securing the modules (e). After cooling the panel is completed (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Outdoor testing of the GEN1 (left) and GEN2 (right) solar panels on a tracking station showing seasonal variation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Daily energy output (a) and performance stability (b) of GEN1 panels over a 24 day period. Red curve corresponds to solar irradiance (left axis), and black curve corresponds to power conversion efficiency (right axis).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degradation of critical parameters for GEN1 panels over 24 day outdoor study. The daily max of each parameter is given (subscript max), with the exception of fill factor which is a daily average (subscript mean). The parameters from top to bottom are: (a) Solar Irradiance (Irrmax), (b) power conversion efficiency (ηPCE,max), (c) max power (Pmax), (d) short-circuit current (ISC,max), (e) open circuit voltage (VOC,max), (f) and fill factor (FFmean).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Degradation of GEN3 panels made with modules encapsulated by 3-ply (black crosses), 4-ply (blue circles), and 6-ply (red squares) barrier layers. The parameters from top to bottom are: (a) power conversion efficiency, (b) short-circuit current, (c) open-circuit voltage, and (d) fill factor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

GEN1 panel after 6 months showing bleaching over silver stripes (a) and the absence of bleaching in GEN2 panels after 6 months (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graphical representation of total cost of polymer solar panels (center), cost of panel fabrication (left) and cost of module production (right).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Structure of polymer solar modules from various generations

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Table 2 Cost estimates of producing a 1 x 1.7 m2 panel under laboratory conditions. Panel contains 24 modules with a total active area of 8640 cm2 (51% coverage)

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Table 3 Degradation of all parameters after 6 months for GEN2 panels

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Table 4 Barrier types for small GEN3 panels along with their performance before and immediately after panel lamination

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