Abstract

A cost effictive, high throughput, and high yield method for the increase of street lamp potency was proposed in this paper. We integrated the imprinting technology and the reflective optical element to obtain a street lamp with high illumination efficiency and without glare effect. The imprinting technique can increase the light extraction efficiency and modulate the intensity distribution in the chip level. The non-Lambertian light source was achieved by using imprinting technique. The compact reflective optical element was added to efficiently suppress the emitting light intensity with small emitting angle for the uniform of illumination intensity and excluded the light with high emitting angle for the prevention of glare. Compared to the conventional street lamp, the novel design has 40% enhancement in illumination intensity, the uniform illumination and the glare effect elimination.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting, (Wiley-Interscience 2002)
  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Solar lighting application Website: http://www.hamak-tech.com/tw/04products/index.asp?id=8
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Krijin, B. A, Salters and o. H. Willemsen, “LED-based mini-projectors,” Proc. SPIE 6196 619602 1–14 (2006)
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Osram Opto-Semiconductor Gmb, Website http://www.orsram-os.com (Golden Dragon with ARGUS lens)
  15. Megaforce Company Limited, Website http://www.megaforce.com.tw

2009 (1)

S. H. Tu, J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “New collection systems for multi LED light engines,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 318–322 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, Y.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khizar, M.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

S. H. Tu, J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “New collection systems for multi LED light engines,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 318–322 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lio, C. X.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lio, X. J.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orita, K.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Q.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, M. H.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takigawa, S.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, T.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, S.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. H.

Ueda, D.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, T.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Wang, S.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. M.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode suing extended-pitch photonic crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. H. Tu, J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, Y. C. Lee, and J. Y. Chang, “New collection systems for multi LED light engines,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 318–322 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. M. Wang, X. J. Lio, S. Wang, C. X. Lio, M. H. Sun, K. Bao, B. Zhang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, Y. Chen, H. Ji, and Q. Ouyang, “Light output enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode by polymer film imprinting,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 279–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Solar lighting application Website: http://www.hamak-tech.com/tw/04products/index.asp?id=8

M. S. Zukauskas, M. S. Schur, R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid State Lighting, (Wiley-Interscience 2002)

M. P. Krijin, B. A, Salters and o. H. Willemsen, “LED-based mini-projectors,” Proc. SPIE 6196 619602 1–14 (2006)

H. Osram Opto-Semiconductor Gmb, “Street lighting with LED light sources” Website http://catalog.osram-os.com/catalogue/catalogue.do?favOid=0000000300012fdd018a00b7&act=showBookmark

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, pp. 94–95 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006)

H. Osram Opto-Semiconductor Gmb, Website http://www.orsram-os.com (Golden Dragon with ARGUS lens)

Megaforce Company Limited, Website http://www.megaforce.com.tw

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The flow chart of imprinting process (a) The SOG layer spun onto the surface of LED chip (b) The imprinting process in chamber (c) The LED chip just separated from Si mold (d) The LED chip after removing SOG recover the pad area. (not to scale)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The pictures and dimension scheme of imprinting structure (a) the OM top view of imprinting structure (b) the AFM tilt view of imprinting structure (c) the imprinting structure geometric parameters (not to scale)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The electric performance of imprinting and planar LED (a) The applied voltage versus current curve (b) The injection current versus luminous curve (c) The intensity distributions of planar and imprinting LED

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The practical application of the imprinting LED chip (a) the side view of designed reflector for street lamp (b) The tilt view of designed reflector for street lamp (c) The far-field pattern of designed street lamp and OSRAM commercial product

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The structure and intensity distribution of imprinting LED street lamp(a) The street lamp composed of 6 × 8 LED light source array (b) The intensity distribution on the illuminated surface

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The street lamp design specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specification comparisons between with designed street lamp and Golden Dragon with ARGUS lens

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