Abstract

This work presents a novel “pulsed spray (PS)” process for the coating of yellow YAG:Ce3+ phosphor on blue InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). To coat a phosphor layer of high quality on an LED chip surface, the PS approach is used and studied because of the uniform color distribution, providing a wide range of color temperatures. This PS coating approach applies phosphor by exploiting mechanical principles without risk of chemical pollution. Additionally, it can be applied to wire-bonded LEDs and an array of LED chips on a substrate to fabricate a large-area, planar illumination system of high optical quality, which is easy to manufacture.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. O. Holcomb, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, S. Eberle, Y. K. Lim, P. S. Martin, and M. Krames, “The LED Lightbulb: Are we there yet? Progress and Challenges for Solid State Illumination,” Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2003 CLEO’03 Conference on 1–6 June 2003.
  3. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, and Y. P. Huang, “A Direct-View Backlight With UV Excited Trichromatic Phosphor Conversion Film,” J. Display Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Hou, H. Rao, and J. Li, “Methods of Increasing Luminous Efficiency of Phosphor-Converted LED Realized by Conformal Phosphor Coating,” J. Display Technol. 5(2), 57–60 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness for Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness for Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cook, L.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, W.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, P.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Keuper, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khare, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liu, S.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rao, H.

Rudaz, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. Y.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.-C.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Steigerwald, D.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F. M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Subramanya, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y. E.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

Trottier, T.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yum, J. H.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs with Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High Power LEDs—Technology Status and Market Applications,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 Phosphor Coating Methods for White Light Emitting Diode on Gallium Nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. O. Holcomb, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, S. Eberle, Y. K. Lim, P. S. Martin, and M. Krames, “The LED Lightbulb: Are we there yet? Progress and Challenges for Solid State Illumination,” Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2003 CLEO’03 Conference on 1–6 June 2003.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the phosphor coating process. (a) Conventional dispensing; (b) Pulsed Spray (PS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The spectral properties of conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray; (b) SEM morphology of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phosphor coating using PS technique. (a) An array of blue LED chips on board (COB); (b) the magnification of individual LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CIE 1976 chromaticity indices versus angular distribution of LED when the light is emitted at angles from −60° to + 60°. (a) Conventional dispensing; (b) conformal coating using PS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between phosphor loading (mg/cm2) and color temperature (Tc).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CIE 1931 chromaticity indices versus angular distribution of LED at Tc centre around 9500 K. (a) Conventional dispensing; (b) conformal coating using PS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Red triangle denotes the white point with different color temperature (Tc).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM micrographs of phosphor coating using PS. (a) Top view; (b) cross-sectional view; (c) illuminated lighting module with phosphor coated by PS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical comparison between conventional dispensing and CPC by PS a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u i = 4 x i / ( - 2 x i + 12 y i + 3 ) , Š Δ u ' i = 1 - Δ u ' i = 2 , 3...
v i = 9 y i / ( - 2 x i + 12 y i + 3 ) , Š Δ v ' i = 1 - Δ v ' i = 2 , 3...
Δ u v = ( ( Δ u ) 2 + ( Δ v ) 2 ) 1 / 2

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