Abstract

Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers with desired fiber diameters that ranged from 336 to 896 nm were electrospun as light scattering and propagation materials. The light scattering behavior of these samples as a function of the fiber diameter and fiber deposition thickness was examined by UV-vis spectrophotometry, which revealed the scattering bands in the absorption spectra. The scattering bands of these nanofibers were linearly proportional to the fiber diameter, which shows good agreement with a scattering model based on the Mie theory. The light scattering and prolonged light path lengths in the nanofiber scaffolds were monitored and quantified by the photoluminescence of a fluorescent dye, Coumarin 6, which was preloaded into the polymer nanofibers. The photoluminescence after proper normalization showed a second-order dependence on the dye loading per unit area, which is significantly different from the spin-coated thin-film samples following a first-order relationship. Nonlinear photoluminescence enhancements indicated prolonged light path lengths and multiple light absorptions within the fiber scaffolds as a result of light scattering. Even with relatively broad scattering band widths, the light scattering and photoluminescence of the electrospun nanofibers exhibited considerable wavelength selectivity, especially as the scattering bands overlapped with the excitation wavelengths of the fluorescence reagent.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Hunley and T. E. Long, “Electrospinning functional nanoscale fibers: a perspective for the future,” Polym. Int. 57(3), 385–389 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. P. Rajesh and T. S. Natarajan, “Electrospun polymer nanofibrous membrane for filtration,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5402–5405 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Seel and R. Brendel, “Optical absorption in crystalline Si films containing spherical voids for internal light scattering,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 608–611 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Rajesh and T. S. Natarajan, “Electrospun polymer nanofibrous membrane for filtration,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5402–5405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(32-33), 3343–3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hunley and T. E. Long, “Electrospinning functional nanoscale fibers: a perspective for the future,” Polym. Int. 57(3), 385–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Seel and R. Brendel, “Optical absorption in crystalline Si films containing spherical voids for internal light scattering,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 608–611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. H. Reneker and I. Chun, “Nanometer diameter fibers of polymer, produced by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 7(3), 216–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Srinivasan and D. H. Reneker, “Structure and morphology of small diameter electrospun aramid fibers,” Polym. Int. 36(2), 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abruña, H.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, A.

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, S.

S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(32-33), 3343–3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.-J.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Al-Badri, Z. M.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almecija, D.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashammakhi, N.

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Babel, A.

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balkus, K. J.

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellan, L. M.

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, S. M.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, G. S.

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blighe, F. M.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blond, D.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, R.

A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Seel and R. Brendel, “Optical absorption in crystalline Si films containing spherical voids for internal light scattering,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 608–611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Camposeo, A.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carlberg, B.

B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, L.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, S.

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-C.

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-S.

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chun, I.

D. H. Reneker and I. Chun, “Nanometer diameter fibers of polymer, produced by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 7(3), 216–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, R. W.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. N.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, A.

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, P. M.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeFranco, J. A.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, K.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Benedetto, F.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drew, C.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edel, J. B.

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferraris, J. P.

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flores-Torres, S.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiki, M.

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukao, S.

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, A.

S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(32-33), 3343–3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, J.

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C.-C.

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunley, M. T.

M. T. Hunley and T. E. Long, “Electrospinning functional nanoscale fibers: a perspective for the future,” Polym. Int. 57(3), 385–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, R.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, R.

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenekhe, S. A.

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keynton, R. S.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khan, U.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-Y.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-M.

G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. B.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-G.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kit, K.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ku, B.-C.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumbar, S. G.

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwak, G.

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurencin, C. T.

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, K. W.

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, I. C.

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D.

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-N.

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, T. E.

M. T. Hunley and T. E. Long, “Electrospinning functional nanoscale fibers: a perspective for the future,” Polym. Int. 57(3), 385–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madhugiri, S.

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malliaras, G. G.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, T.

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCauley, J.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mele, E.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, H.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michler, G. H.

G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moran-Mirabal, J. M.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S.-I.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. H.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, T. S.

K. P. Rajesh and T. S. Natarajan, “Electrospun polymer nanofibrous membrane for filtration,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5402–5405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neves, A. A. R.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikkola, L.

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nukavarapu, S. P.

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pabba, S.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pagliara, S.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, W.

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, S.

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, A. C.

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Persano, L.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisignano, D.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polini, A.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potschke, P.

G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, K. P.

K. P. Rajesh and T. S. Natarajan, “Electrospun polymer nanofibrous membrane for filtration,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5402–5405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramkumar, S. S.

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rathfon, J. M.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reneker, D. H.

D. H. Reneker and I. Chun, “Nanometer diameter fibers of polymer, produced by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 7(3), 216–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Srinivasan and D. H. Reneker, “Structure and morphology of small diameter electrospun aramid fibers,” Polym. Int. 36(2), 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, T.

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L. A.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seel, H.

H. Seel and R. Brendel, “Optical absorption in crystalline Si films containing spherical voids for internal light scattering,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 608–611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shie, T.-Y.

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, H.-S.

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shunmugam, R.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slinker, J. D.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, G.

G. Srinivasan and D. H. Reneker, “Structure and morphology of small diameter electrospun aramid fibers,” Polym. Int. 36(2), 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stabile, R.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Subbiah, T.

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terheiden, B.

A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tew, G. N.

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tock, R. W.

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verbridge, S. S.

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walshe, W.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wendorff, J. H.

S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(32-33), 3343–3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wimpenny, I.

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, A.

A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zivanovic, S.

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

S. Chakraborty, I. C. Liao, A. Adler, and K. W. Leong, “Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61(12), 1043–1054 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. M. Rathfon, Z. M. Al-Badri, R. Shunmugam, S. M. Berry, S. Pabba, R. S. Keynton, R. W. Cohn, and G. N. Tew, “Fluorimetric nerve gas sensing based on pyrene imines incorporated into films and sub-micrometer fibers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 689–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Blond, W. Walshe, K. Young, F. M. Blighe, U. Khan, D. Almecija, L. Carpenter, J. McCauley, W. J. Blau, and J. N. Coleman, “Strong, tough, electrospun polymer-nanotube composite membranes with extremely low density,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(17), 2618–2624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications,” Adv. Mater. 21(32-33), 3343–3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, A. Babel, S. A. Jenekhe, and Y. Xia, “Nanofibers of conjugated polymers prepared by electrospinning with a two-capillary spinneret,” Adv. Mater. 16(22), 2062–2066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun dye-doped polymer nanofibers emitting in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Shim, S.-I. Na, S. H. Nam, H.-J. Ahn, H. J. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, and W. B. Kim, “Efficient photovoltaic device fashioned of highly aligned multilayers of electrospun TiO2 nanowire array with conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Mater. (1)

S. G. Kumbar, R. James, S. P. Nukavarapu, and C. T. Laurencin, “Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (3)

A. C. Patel, S. Li, C. Wang, W. Zhang, and Y. Wei, “Electrospinning of porous silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles for catalytic applications,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1231–1238 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, H. Wu, R. Zhang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced photocatalysis of electrospun Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanofibers,” Chem. Mater. 21(15), 3479–3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kwak, S. Fukao, M. Fujiki, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Masuda, “Nanoporous, honeycomb-structured network fibers spun from semiflexible, ultrahigh molecular weight, disubstituted aromatic polyacetylenes: Superhierarchical Structure and Unique Optical Anisotropy,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5537–5542 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J Biomed Nanotechnol (1)

N. Ashammakhi, I. Wimpenny, L. Nikkola, and Y. Yang, “Electrospinning: methods and development of biodegradable nanofibres for drug release,” J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1), 1–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Madhugiri, A. Dalton, J. Gutierrez, J. P. Ferraris, and K. J. Balkus., “Electrospun MEH-PPV/SBA-15 composite nanofibers using a dual syringe method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14531–14538 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Wolf, B. Terheiden, and R. Brendel, “Light scattering and diffuse light propagation in sintered porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

T. Subbiah, G. S. Bhat, R. W. Tock, S. Parameswaran, and S. S. Ramkumar, “Electrospinning of nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(2), 557–569 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

K. P. Rajesh and T. S. Natarajan, “Electrospun polymer nanofibrous membrane for filtration,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5402–5405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (2)

C.-C. Ho, W.-S. Chen, T.-Y. Shie, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Novel fabrication of Janus particles from the surfaces of electrospun polymer fibers,” Langmuir 24(11), 5663–5666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carlberg, T. Wang, and J. Liu, “Direct photolithographic patterning of electrospun films for defined nanofibrillar microarchitectures,” Langmuir 26(4), 2235–2239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

J.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chen, J.-N. Lin, and C. Kuo, “Effects of polymer media on electrospun mesoporous titania nanofibers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 107(2-3), 480–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Wang, Y.-G. Kim, C. Drew, B.-C. Ku, J. Kumar, and L. A. Samuelson, “Electrostatic assembly of conjugated polymer thin layers on electrospun nanofibrous membranes for biosensors,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 331–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Moran-Mirabal, J. D. Slinker, J. A. DeFranco, S. S. Verbridge, R. Ilic, S. Flores-Torres, H. Abruña, G. G. Malliaras, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 458–463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. H. Reneker and I. Chun, “Nanometer diameter fibers of polymer, produced by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology 7(3), 216–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Di Benedetto, A. Camposeo, S. Pagliara, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Stabile, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Patterning of light-emitting conjugated polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 614–619 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Int. (2)

G. Srinivasan and D. H. Reneker, “Structure and morphology of small diameter electrospun aramid fibers,” Polym. Int. 36(2), 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hunley and T. E. Long, “Electrospinning functional nanoscale fibers: a perspective for the future,” Polym. Int. 57(3), 385–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.) (2)

K. Desai, K. Kit, J. Li, P. M. Davidson, S. Zivanovic, and H. Meyer, “Nanofibrous chitosan non-wovens for filtration applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 50(15), 3661–3669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G.-M. Kim, G. H. Michler, and P. Potschke, “Deformation processes of ultrahigh porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polycarbonate composite fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(18), 7346–7351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Small (3)

X. Lu, C. Wang, and Y. Wei, “One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications,” Small 5(21), 2349–2370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, J. B. Edel, L. M. Bellan, and H. G. Craighead, “Electrospun polymer nanofibers as subwavelength optical waveguides incorporating quantum dots,” Small 2(4), 495–499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Seel and R. Brendel, “Optical absorption in crystalline Si films containing spherical voids for internal light scattering,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 608–611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images and diameter distributions of the electrospun PMMA nanofibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering spectra for the four electrospun PMMA nanofibers and the absorption spectrum of the spin-coated PMMA film (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering spectrum for sample PMMA-14 and the corresponding simulation spectra (c and d group). The inserted image illustrates the linear relationships between the scattering bands and the average fiber diameter for both the experiment (a) and the simulation (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering spectra for the six PMMA-C6-14 nanofibers that were electrospun from 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200-μl solutions (spectra a to f). The insert shows the intensities of the scattering bands from four electrospun PMMA-C6 samples as a function of the PMMA or C6 deposition (mg/cm2). With no scattering bands, the profile of the PMMA-C6 films illustrated the C6 absorption at 455 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photoluminescence spectra for the PMMA-C6-14 nanofibers that were electrospun from 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200-μl solutions (spectra a to f).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence intensities of the electrospun and spin-coated PMMA-C6 samples as a function of the PMMA or C6 deposition (mg/cm2). The right axis represents the effective light path length that was obtained from the P L calculations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light path length ratios of the electrospun PMMA-C6 nanofibers compared to their spin-coated counter-samples with the same C6 loadings per unit area.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Second-order coefficient (α) versus the scattering bands of the electrospun PMMA-C6 nanofibers. The excitation spectrum that is shown above was recorded by monitoring the C6 emission at 494 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrospinning formulas and the average diameters of the electrospun PMMA and PMMA-C6 fibers.

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