Abstract

We describe Linearly Polarized Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LP-LSCs) to replace conventional, purely absorptive, linear polarizers in energy harvesting applications. As a proof of concept, we align 3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-N,N-diethylumbelliferylamine (Coumarin 6) and 4-dicyanomethyl-6-dimethylaminostiryl-4H-pyran (DCM) dye molecules linearly in the plane of the substrate using a polymerizable liquid crystal host. We show that up to 38% of the photons polarized on the long axis of the dye molecules can be coupled to the edge of the device for an LP-LSC based on Coumarin 6 with an order parameter of 0.52.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Bourson and B. Valeur, “Ion-Responsive Fluorescent Compounds. 2. Cation-Steered Intramolecular Charge-Transfer in a Crowned Merocyanine,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(9), 3871–3876 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Bourson and B. Valeur, “Ion-Responsive Fluorescent Compounds. 2. Cation-Steered Intramolecular Charge-Transfer in a Crowned Merocyanine,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(9), 3871–3876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Azumi, R.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

Baseler, T. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, J. S.

Beaumont, G. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bende, E. E.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, A.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bourson, J.

J. Bourson and B. Valeur, “Ion-Responsive Fluorescent Compounds. 2. Cation-Steered Intramolecular Charge-Transfer in a Crowned Merocyanine,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(9), 3871–3876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Broussard, D. R.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchtemann, A.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budel, T.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgers, A. R.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. Y.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Y.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, T. Y.

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cole, T.

Currie, M. J.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debije, M. G.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dimroth, F.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K. H.

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, E. D.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M. P.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goffri, S.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greube, W.

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, M. S.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heck, C.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heidel, T. D.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Helmers, H.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, K.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, C. Y.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, A.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kenny, R. P.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Lambe, J.

Layhue, J. M.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. C.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lokey, G. E.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lungenschmied, C.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mapel, J. K.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLafferty, J. B.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meng, C. Y.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, A.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minato, H.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, M.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizokuro, T.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, C. L.

Neugebauer, H.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, E.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piñol, R.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pravettoni, M.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reusswig, P. D.

Reynolds, G. A.

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ries, H.

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

Rowan, B. C.

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, S. N.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, J. L.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, J. D. M.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sierra, T.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L. H.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smestad, G.

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, W.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, N.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valeur, B.

J. Bourson and B. Valeur, “Ion-Responsive Fluorescent Compounds. 2. Cation-Steered Intramolecular Charge-Transfer in a Crowned Merocyanine,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(9), 3871–3876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Velázquez, A. M.

Verbunt, P. P. C.

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

Willeke, G.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. R.

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winston, R.

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wittmershaus, B. P.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. J.

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. Y.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

Zhang, Y.-Z.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

P. P. C. Verbunt, A. Kaiser, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and M. G. Debije, “Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2714–2719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Yang, T. Y. Cho, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Yang, C. Y. Meng, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, H. Y. Chang, C. Y. Hsueh, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Bourson and B. Valeur, “Ion-Responsive Fluorescent Compounds. 2. Cation-Steered Intramolecular Charge-Transfer in a Crowned Merocyanine,” J. Phys. Chem. 93(9), 3871–3876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Energy-recycling high-contrast organic light-emitting devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 691–694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters (1)

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Materials (2)

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 21(2-3), 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Structure and Bonding (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. J. Collings, and M. Hird, Introduction to liquid crystals chemistry and physics (Taylor & Francis, London; Bristol, PA, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic representation of a Linearly Polarized Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LP-LSC) for energy harvesting in displays. Most displays employ purely absorptive linear polarizers to improve their contrast ratio. In this linearly polarized LSC, dichroic dye molecules are aligned in the plane of a thin, flat plate waveguide using a polymerized liquid crystal host or a stretched polymer as a scaffold. The absorption of the waveguide is linearly polarized – ambient light or light from the back-plane is absorbed very strongly for polarizations parallel to the dipole moment of the dye molecules. However, perpendicular polarized light is transmitted, leaving the entire front surface of the device available for the display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chemical structures of the materials used for the linearly polarized LSC studies. The liquid crystal host material used is Paliocolor LC242. The dichroic dye molecules are 4-dicyanomethyl-6-dimethylaminostiryl-4H-pyran (DCM) and 3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-N,N-diethylumbelliferylamine (Coumarin 6).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized absorption and photoluminescence of the linearly polarized LSCs used in this study. The absorption of light polarized parallel to the rubbing direction is depicted as a solid red line, and the blue dotted line is light polarized perpendicular to the rubbing direction. The photoluminescence is plotted as a dotted green line. The left panel depicts the absorption of liquid crystal host doped with 1% C6 (solid weight content), while the right panel shows the results for a sample co-doped with C6 and DCM (both at 1% solid weight content).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A schematic representation of the Optical Quantum Efficiency (OQE) measurement set-up. A linearly polarized LSC is positioned in an integrating sphere and excited with monochromatic light that is either polarized parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the dye molecules. We discriminate between edge and face emission by selectively blocking the edge emission with a black marker. (b) The OQE for a linearly polarized LSC based on Coumarin 6 dye molecules (left panel) and a sample co-doped with Coumarin 6 and DCM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The performance of linearly polarized LSCs based on Coumarin 6 dye molecules as a function of geometric gain is simulated by measuring the current coming out of a solar cell attached to the edge of the LSC while varying the distance, d, between the excitation spot and the solar cell. This measurement is performed on LP-LSCs for which the dye molecules are aligned parallel (left schematic) or perpendicular (right schematic) to the solar cell. (b) The external quantum efficiency versus geometric gain, G, of the LP-LSCs. The performance of the parallel dipole LSC drops off faster than the LP-LSC for which the dipoles are aligned perpendicular to the solar cell. This is the result of the larger self-absorption of the first geometry, since there is a larger overlap between the emissive dipole and the absorptive dipole or these photons travelling towards the solar cell. The blue curve represents the performance of a uniformly illuminated LSC and is the weighted average of the two curves.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f = 2 3 cos 3 θ C [ ϕ ' 1 2 sin 2 ϕ ' ] + 2 cos θ C [ ϕ ' + 1 2 sin 2 ϕ ' ] [ 2 3 cos 3 θ C + 2 cos θ C ] π
f = 2 3 cos 3 θ C [ ϕ ' + 1 2 sin 2 ϕ ' ] + 2 cos θ C [ ϕ ' 1 2 sin 2 ϕ ' ] [ 2 3 cos 3 θ C + 2 cos θ C ] π

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