Abstract

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use dye molecules embedded in a flat-plate waveguide to absorb solar radiation. Ideally, the dyes re-emit the absorbed light into waveguide modes that are coupled to solar cells. But some photons are always lost, re-emitted through the face of the LSC and coupled out of the waveguide. In this work, we improve the fundamental efficiency limit of an LSC by controlling the orientation of dye molecules using a liquid crystalline host. First, we present a theoretical model for the waveguide trapping efficiency as a function of dipole orientation. Next, we demonstrate an increase in the trapping efficiency from 66% for LSCs with no dye alignment to 81% for a LSC with vertical dye alignment. Finally, we show that the enhanced trapping efficiency is preserved for geometric gains up to 30, and demonstrate that an external diffuser can alleviate weak absorption in LSCs with vertically-aligned dyes.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

2009 (3)

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Debije, P. P. C. Verbunt, B. C. Rowan, B. S. Richards, and T. L. Hoeks, “Measured surface loss from luminescent solar concentrator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6763–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. van Gurp and Y. K. Levine, “Determination of transition moment directions in molecules of low symmetry using polarized fluorescence. I. Theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 90(8), 4095–4102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Azumi, R.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

C. L. Mulder, P. D. Reusswig, A. P. Beyler, H. Kim, C. Rotschild, and M. A. Baldo, “Dye Alignment in Luminescent Solar Concentrators: II. Horizontal Alignment for Energy Harvesting in Linear Polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, A91-A99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baseler, T. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W.

Batchelder, J. S.

Beaumont, G. T.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bende, E. E.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beyler, A. P.

Bosch, A.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

Broussard, D. R.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, B. D.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchtemann, A.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budel, T.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgers, A. R.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cole, T.

Currie, M.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M. J.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debije, M. G.

Dimroth, F.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doran, J.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J. M.

Drexhage, K. H.

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, E. D.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fayer, M. D.

Garcia, M. P.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goffri, S.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greube, W.

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, M. S.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heck, C.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heidel, T. D.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Helmers, H.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoeks, T. L.

Jorgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kastelijn, M. J.

Kennedy, M.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kenny, R. P.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Lambe, J.

Layhue, J. M.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesiecki, M. L.

Levine, Y. K.

M. van Gurp and Y. K. Levine, “Determination of transition moment directions in molecules of low symmetry using polarized fluorescence. I. Theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 90(8), 4095–4102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lokey, G. E.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loring, R. F.

Lub, J.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mapel, J. K.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormack, S. J.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McLafferty, J. B.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McLain, C. E.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minato, H.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, M.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizokuro, T.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morseman, J. P.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, M. W.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, C. L.

C. L. Mulder, P. D. Reusswig, A. P. Beyler, H. Kim, C. Rotschild, and M. A. Baldo, “Dye Alignment in Luminescent Solar Concentrators: II. Horizontal Alignment for Energy Harvesting in Linear Polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, A91-A99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. W.

Peeters, E.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piñol, R.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pravettoni, M.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reusswig, P. D.

Reynolds, G. A.

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

M. G. Debije, P. P. C. Verbunt, B. C. Rowan, B. S. Richards, and T. L. Hoeks, “Measured surface loss from luminescent solar concentrator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6763–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

Rowan, B. C.

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Debije, P. P. C. Verbunt, B. C. Rowan, B. S. Richards, and T. L. Hoeks, “Measured surface loss from luminescent solar concentrator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6763–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansregret, J.

Serrano, J. L.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, J. D. M.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sierra, T.

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L. H.

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, W.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, N.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Theogarajan, L.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, W. R. L.

Van, M. P.

van der Blom, R. H.

van Gurp, M.

M. van Gurp and Y. K. Levine, “Determination of transition moment directions in molecules of low symmetry using polarized fluorescence. I. Theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 90(8), 4095–4102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, M.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verbunt, P. P.

Verbunt, P. P. C.

Weber, W. H.

Willard, P.

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willeke, G.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. R.

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wittmershaus, B. P.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

Zhang, Y.-Z.

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. L. Mulder, L. Theogarajan, M. Currie, J. K. Mapel, M. A. Baldo, M. Vaughn, P. Willard, B. D. Bruce, M. W. Moss, C. E. McLain, and J. P. Morseman, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Phycobilisomes,” Adv. Mater. 21(31), 3181–3185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-Host Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals. A New Electro-Optic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Piñol, J. Lub, M. P. Garcia, E. Peeters, J. L. Serrano, D. Broer, and T. Sierra, “Synthesis, Properties, and Polymerization of New Liquid Crystalline Monomers for Highly Ordered Guest-Host Systems,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 6076–6086 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. C. Rowan, L. R. Wilson, and B. S. Richards, “Advanced Material Concepts for Luminescent Solar Concentrators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1312–1322 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. van Gurp and Y. K. Levine, “Determination of transition moment directions in molecules of low symmetry using polarized fluorescence. I. Theory,” J. Chem. Phys. 90(8), 4095–4102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Tanigaki, C. Heck, T. Mizokuro, H. Minato, M. Misaki, Y. Yoshida, and R. Azumi, “Doped-dye orientation relative to oriented polyfluorene host film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 416–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. A. Reynolds and K. H. Drexhage, “New Coumarin Dyes with Rigidized Structure for Flashlamp-Pumped Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 222–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters (1)

L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop, and A. Buchtemann, “A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency,” Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters 2(6), 257–259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, “High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics,” Science 321(5886), 226–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy (1)

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots,” Sol. Energy 83(7), 978–981 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bosch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(2), 176–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Bailey, G. E. Lokey, M. S. Hanes, J. D. M. Shearer, J. B. McLafferty, G. T. Beaumont, T. T. Baseler, J. M. Layhue, D. R. Broussard, Y.-Z. Zhang, and B. P. Wittmershaus, “Optimized excitation energy transfer in a three-dye luminescent solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(1), 67–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Materials (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent Planar Concentrators,” Solar Energy Materials 11(3), 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Structure and Bonding (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-Conversion,” Structure and Bonding 49, 1–36 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” Presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaics Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3–7 September 2007.

J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic wave theory (EMW Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 2008).

Schott, “Data Sheet SF10,” http://www.us.schott.com/advanced_optics/us/abbe_datasheets/datasheet_sf10.pdf .

H. Hasebe, Y. Kuwana, H. Nakata, O. Yamazaki, K. Takeuchi, and H. Takatsu, “UV-Curable Liquid Crystal for a Retarder,” in Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (AOE) (2008).

B. S. Richards, A. Shalev, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-cone-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2004).

R. Bose, D. J. Farrell, A. J. Chatten, M. Pravettoni, A. Buechtemann, J. Quilitz, A. Fiore, L. Manna, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Nanorods and Raytrace Modeling,” PVSC: 2008 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Vols 1–4, 24–28 (2008).

A. Burgers, L. Slooff, A. Buchtemann, and J. van Roosmalen, “Performance of single layer luminescent concentrators with multiple dyes,” Conference Record of the IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 1 and 2, pp 198–201 and pp 2568 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic representation of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). Solar radiation is absorbed by highly fluorescent dye molecules integrated in a thin, flat-plate waveguide. The dye re-emits photons at a lower energy, which can then be guided to solar cells attached to the edge of the plate by total internal reflection. For a conventional LSC employing isotropically aligned dye molecules, approximately ~75% of the radiation is trapped in the waveguide (here represented by black arrows). A fraction of the absorbed photons is lost from the waveguide if they are re-emitted above the critical angle, or scattered outside of the waveguide (grey arrows). The trapping efficiency is then defined as the fraction of photons emitted from the edge versus photons emitted from the face and edge combined. (b) The emission profile of isotropic dipoles and a linearly aligned, anisotropic dipole. The absorption and emission profile of isotropic dipoles is uniform, while the anisotropic dipole emission is characterized by a sin2 θ profile, with little power emitted along the long axis of the dipole molecule. (c) In order to improve the performance of LSCs, we align rod-shaped dichroic dye molecules perpendicular to the waveguide, enhancing the fraction of the total dipole power trapped in the waveguide. A polymerizable liquid crystal host serves as a scaffold. An external diffuser is used to correct for the reduced ability to absorb light incident perpendicular to the waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic representation of the dipole orientation within the waveguide of the LSC. The angle between the dipole moment, d , and the electric field vector, E , of the excitation beam, k , is defined as φ. (b) The calculated trapping efficiency as a function of the orientation of a Hertzian dipole with respect to the waveguide for three different refractive indexes of the dye medium. θ = 0° corresponds to a dipole oriented perpendicular to the waveguide, while θ = 90° describes a dipole aligned in the plane of the waveguide. (c) The calculated trapping efficiency as a function of the refractive index of the dye medium, nS , for vertically aligned dipoles (green line), isotropic dipoles (red line) and in-plane aligned dipoles (blue line). We use the conventional Eq. (2) for the trapping efficiency of isotropic dipoles. (d) The calculated trapping efficiency of an LSC for s and p polarized light based on isotropic dipoles as a function of the angle of the incident light, as measured outside of the waveguide with refractive index of n S = 1.5 (blue line) and nS = 1.6 (red line). ηtrap is independent of excitation angle for s-polarized light, while ηtrap increases 3-5% from normal till 90° incidence for p-polarized light. We also plot ηtrap for the case where the dependence of the angular distribution of excited dyes on the angle of the incident light is not taken into account (dotted red and blue lines) (Eq. (2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A schematic representation of the side-view of the measurement set up used to determine the trapping efficiency, ηtrap , of the LSCs. The isotropic and vertically aligned LSCs are characterized in an integrating sphere to measure the edge and facial emission as a function of excitation wavelength. (b) Schematic representation of the top-view of the set-up used to test the angular dependence of the absorption within isotropic and vertically aligned LSCs. One of the edges of the LSC is placed into an opening of an integrating sphere, which allows the monitoring of the edge emission as a function of the incident angle of the excitation beam. For studies of the effect of an external scattering layer, holographic diffusers are placed in the path of the excitation source at a distance of 1mm from the LSC. (c) The performance of isotropic and homeotropic LSCs at higher optical concentrations is measured by monitoring the efficiency while varying the distance, d, between the excitation spot and the solar cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured Optical Quantum Efficiency (OQE) of the facial emission (blue dots), edge emission (green dots) and the total emission (red dots) of (a) the isotropic LSCs, and (b) the vertically aligned LSCs. Both samples absorb 40% of the incoming light. (c) The measured trapping efficiency, ηtrap of the isotropically aligned LSCs (red dots) and the vertically aligned, homeotropic, LSCs (green dots). This measured ηtrap is the ratio between the edge and the total emission OQEs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The power emitted from the edge of an LSC as a function of the incoming angle of the excitation beam for a isotropic LSC and a vertically aligned LSC. The edge power is normalized to the power at normal incidence. The monotonic increase in performance of the vertically aligned LSC is consistent with an increased ability of the vertical dipoles to absorb light at higher angles. The theoretical predictions for the edge emission versus incident angle are plotted as dotted lines. These calculations consider both the change in absorption and the change in trapping efficiency resulting from a change in incidence angle. (b) Effect of an external diffuser on the edge output power of an isotropic (red dots) and homeotropic LSC (green dots). Increasing the diffuser strength improved the performance of the vertically aligned LSC, while the isotropic LSC hardly benefits. This data is not corrected for increased absorption at higher incidence angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(left axis) The external quantum efficiency (EQE) versus geometric gain for vertically aligned LSCs (red dots) and isotropic dipoles (green dots). Both samples absorbed 42% of the incoming radiation. Monte Carlo simulations for uniformly illuminated LSCs (open circles) and simulations of the spot excitation technique (open squares) yield slightly higher results due to the higher trapping efficiency obtained in the Monte Carlo simulations compared to measured trapping efficiencies. (right axis) The measured ratio of the EQE of the vertically aligned LCS is ~16% higher than the isotropic standard for all measured geometric gains, consistent with the higher measured trapping efficiency.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η t r a p ( θ D ) = 1 n C 2 n S 2 ( 1 + n C 2 2 n S 2 [ 1 3 2 sin 2 θ D ] )
η t r a p i s o = 0 π / 2 d θ D sin θ D 1 n C 2 n S 2 ( 1 + n C 2 2 n S 2 [ 1 3 2 sin 2 θ D ] ) = 1 n C 2 n S 2
η t r a p i s o ( θ I ) = 0 2 π d ϕ D 0 π / 2 d θ D η t r a p ( θ D ) sin θ D cos 2 φ 0 2 π d ϕ D 0 π / 2 d θ D sin θ D cos 2 φ ,
η t r a p , p i s o ( θ I ) = 1 n C 2 n S 2 ( 1 n C 2 10 n S 2 [ 1 3 sin 2 θ I ] )
η t r a p , s i s o ( θ I ) = 1 n C 2 n S 2 ( 1 n C 2 10 n S 2 )

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