We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun–earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.
©2010 Optical Society of America
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