Abstract

The extraction efficiency of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN LEDs on sapphire substrates has been enhanced by selectively etching the mesa sidewall faces and the n-type GaN surfaces with photoenhanced chemical wet etching. Submicron-sized trigonal prisms having prismatic planes of {1-100} were clearly displayed on the n-type GaN surfaces as well as the sidewall face after 5 min etching at 60°C. The radiation patterns have shown that more light is extracted in all directions and the output powers of surface textured a-plane GaN LEDs have increased by 25% compared with control samples. PEC wet etching produced unique feature of etching morphology on the mesa sidewall faces and the n-type GaN surface.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).
  11. Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

2006 (1)

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyama, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinkley, S.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, P.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I.-S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Den Baars, S. P.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feneberg, M.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Funato, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangleiter, A.

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, M. T.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J.

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kollmer, H.

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-D.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipski, F.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M.

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melo, T.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minsky, M. S.

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neubert, B.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Off, J.

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, K.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, E. A.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Schirra, M.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Scholz, F.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo Im, J.

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sohmer, A.

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thonke, K.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ushida, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetzel, C.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, M.

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Wunderer, T.

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-Plane GaInN Light Emitting Diodes Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-Plane GaN-Based Blue Superluminescent Diodes Fabricated Using Selective Chemical Wet Etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, A. Hirai, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical etching of p-type GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Minsky, M. White, and E. L. Hu, “Room‐temperature photoenhanced wet etching of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1531–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

B. Neubert, T. Wunderer, P. Bruckner, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, F. Lipski, M. Schirra, and K. Thonke, “Semipolar GaN/GaInN LEDs with more than 1 mW optical output power,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 706–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767–H771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, H. Sato, N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “High Power and High External Efficiency m-Plane InGaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), L126–L128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11-22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Seo Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi 1, 125–127 (2007) (RRL).

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. Jung, M. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Electrical and structural characterizations of non-polar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), 1747–1750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A). Schematic diagram of heteroepitaxial a-plane InGaN/GaN LED structure (B). Schematic diagram of GaN planes showing c-axis, c-plane and a-plane. (C) Microscope image of the processed a-plane InGaN/GaN LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images in the direction of + c-axis [0001] of the mesa sidewall of LED samples (A) before and (B) after 5 min etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of PEC textured LED samples in the directions of (A) + c-axis [0001], (B) + m-direction [1-100], and (C) –c-axis [000-1].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The optical output powers of control and PEC textured LED samples for 5 min, measured on-wafer at the current injection of 20mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The comparison of radiation patterns of control and PEC textured a-plane LEDs, measured in m-axis and c-axis rotations.

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