Abstract

The generation of THz radiation from ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses propagating in metallic hollow waveguides filled with Ar is numerically studied. We observe a strong reshaping of the low-frequency part of the spectrum. More precisely, after several millimeters of propagation the spectrum is extended from hundreds of GHz up to ~ 150 THz. For longer propagation distances, nearly single-cycle near-infrared pulses with wavelengths around 4.5 μm are obtained by appropriate spectral filtering, with an efficiency of 0.1–1%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  8. K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” N. J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

V. B. Gildenburg, and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann and F. Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,”, Opt. Express 15, 6389 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. V. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

E. A. V. Markatili, and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1784 (1964).

Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I.

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, W.

Gaal, P.

Gaudiosi, D.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gildenburg, V. B.

V. B. Gildenburg, and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Husakou, A.

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapetanakos, C. A.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, P. J.

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markatili, E. A. V.

E. A. V. Markatili, and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1784 (1964).

Mero, M.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” N. J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

Morgner, U.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. H.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noack, F.

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peñano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.-Y.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. V. Markatili, and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1784 (1964).

Sheng, Z.-M.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” N. J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silaev, A. A.

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinkellner, O.

Taylor, A. J.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzankov, P.

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vvedenskii, N. V.

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vvedinskii, N. V.

V. B. Gildenburg, and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Willi, O.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-C.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” N. J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. V. Markatili, and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1784 (1964).

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” N. J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69, 066415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

V. B. Gildenburg, and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. T (1)

A. A. Silaev, and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T 135, 014024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. D. Landau, and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), 2nd ed., p. 276.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Handbook of Optics, ed. by M. Bass, McGraw-Hill, (1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online). (a) Scheme for THz generation considered in this article. A short pulse with center frequency ν 0 = 375 THz (corresponding to wavelength λ = 800 nm) and its second harmonic are focused into an aluminum coated hollow waveguide filled with Ar. The THz emission is detected at the exit of the waveguide. (b) Losses α (red solid line) and refractive index change δn = kc/ω (green dashed line) induced by the Al waveguide with the diameter d = 100 μm for the mode EH11 versus frequency Ω = ω/2π.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online). Evolution of the THz spectrum upon propagation in a hollow waveguide at 1 atm gas pressure with diameter d = 100 μm, assuming Gaussian pulses with intensities Iω = 1014 W/cm2,I 2ω = 2 × 1013 W/cm2, equal pulse durations (10 fs) and phase difference θ = π/2 at the input. (a) The spectrum and (b) low-frequency part of spectrum [note the logarithmic scale of y-axis in (a) and of both axes in (b)] for z = 0.5,2, and 10 mm of propagation (black dashed, green dotted and red solid lines). (c) Pulses obtained by filtering the long-wavelength part of the spectrum below 250 THz. Propagation distances, color coding and line styles are the same as in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online). Spectra for various parameters modified as compared to Fig. 2 (1 cm of propagation). (a) Different input pulse durations: 25 fs (red solid line), 100 fs (green dashed line); blue dotted line shows the case of different fundamental (10 fs) and second harmonic (7 fs) pulse durations. (b) Red solid line: pressure 0.5 atm; green dashed line: I 2ω = 60 TW/cm2; blue dotted line: θ = 0. Note that the spectra are normalized to their intensity maxima (at Ω ≅ ν 0) to compare efficiencies.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J ˙ ( t ) + v e J ( t ) = q 2 m e E ( t ) ρ ( t ) ,
ρ ˙ ( t ) = W ST [ E ( t ) ] [ ρ at ρ ( t ) ] , W ST [ E ( t ) ] = α E a E ( t ) exp { β E a E ( t ) } .
2 E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) z 2 + k 2 ( ω ) E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) + Δ E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) = μ 0 ω 2 P ̃ nl ( r , z , ω ) ,
E ̃ j ( z , ω ) z = i β j ( ω ) E ̃ j ( z , ω ) + i μ 0 ω 2 2 β j ( ω ) P ̃ nl ( j ) ( z , ω ) .

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