Abstract

The generation of THz radiation from ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses propagating in metallic hollow waveguides filled with Ar is numerically studied. We observe a strong reshaping of the low-frequency part of the spectrum. More precisely, after several millimeters of propagation the spectrum is extended from hundreds of GHz up to ~ 150 THz. For longer propagation distances, nearly single-cycle near-infrared pulses with wavelengths around 4.5 μm are obtained by appropriate spectral filtering, with an efficiency of 0.1–1%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  7. K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.
  26. E. A. V. Markatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 431784 (1964).
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  28. P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S.C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2009 (5)

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasma 16, 056706 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  102, 115005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T135, 014024 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

V. B. Gildenburg and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Reimann, Rep. Prog. Phys. “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,”  70, 1597 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and Frank Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 15, 6389 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S.C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

E. A. V. Markatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 431784 (1964).

Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I.

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and Frank Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 15, 6389 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bartel, T.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Burnett, K.

S.C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Freyer, W.

Gaal, P.

Gaudiosi, D.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gildenburg, V. B.

V. B. Gildenburg and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Glownia, J. H.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, J.

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and Frank Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 15, 6389 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Husakou, A.

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapetanakos, C. A.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasma 16, 056706 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, C.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), 2nd ed., p. 276.

Leonard, P. J.

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), 2nd ed., p. 276.

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Markatili, E. A. V.

E. A. V. Markatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 431784 (1964).

Mero, M.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mima, K.

Morgner, U.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. H.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noack, Frank

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peñano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.-Y.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pukhov, A.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rae, S.C.

S.C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

K. Reimann, Rep. Prog. Phys. “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,”  70, 1597 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Rodriguez, G.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. V. Markatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 431784 (1964).

Sheng, Z.-M.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silaev, A. A.

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  102, 115005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T135, 014024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steinkellner, O.

Taylor, A. J.

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tobey, R.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tzankov, P.

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vvedenskii, N. V.

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  102, 115005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T135, 014024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vvedinskii, N. V.

V. B. Gildenburg and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Willi, O.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-C.

T. D. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

P. J. Leonard, “Refractive indices, Verdet constants and polarizabilities for inert gases,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 21 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. V. Markatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 431784 (1964).

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

N. Karpowicz, X. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “The role of tunnel ionization in terahertz gas photonics,” Laser Phys. 19, 1535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (1)

K.-Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 325 (2006).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

H.-C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z.-M. Sheng, “Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasma (1)

K.-Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasma 16, 056706 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S.C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Residual-Current Excitation in Plasmas Produced by Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  102, 115005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. H. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Matching of High-Order Harmonics in Hollow Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Polarization Control of Terahertz Waves Generated from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. B. Gildenburg and N. V. Vvedinskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of Broadband Terahertz Waves with a Laser-Induced Plasma in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

A. A. Silaev and N. V. Vvedenskii, “Quantum-mechanical approach for calculating the residual quasi-dc current in a plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Scr. T135, 014024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Reimann, Rep. Prog. Phys. “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,”  70, 1597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), 2nd ed., p. 276.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.1900.

Handbook of Optics, ed. by M. Bass, McGraw-Hill, (1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online). (a) Scheme for THz generation considered in this article. A short pulse with center frequency ν 0 = 375 THz (corresponding to wavelength λ = 800 nm) and its second harmonic are focused into an aluminum coated hollow waveguide filled with Ar. The THz emission is detected at the exit of the waveguide. (b) Losses α (red solid line) and refractive index change δn = kc/ω (green dashed line) induced by the Al waveguide with the diameter d = 100 μm for the mode EH11 versus frequency Ω = ω/2π.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online). Evolution of the THz spectrum upon propagation in a hollow waveguide at 1 atm gas pressure with diameter d = 100 μm, assuming Gaussian pulses with intensities Iω = 1014 W/cm2,I 2ω = 2 × 1013 W/cm2, equal pulse durations (10 fs) and phase difference θ = π/2 at the input. (a) The spectrum and (b) low-frequency part of spectrum [note the logarithmic scale of y-axis in (a) and of both axes in (b)] for z = 0.5,2, and 10 mm of propagation (black dashed, green dotted and red solid lines). (c) Pulses obtained by filtering the long-wavelength part of the spectrum below 250 THz. Propagation distances, color coding and line styles are the same as in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online). Spectra for various parameters modified as compared to Fig. 2 (1 cm of propagation). (a) Different input pulse durations: 25 fs (red solid line), 100 fs (green dashed line); blue dotted line shows the case of different fundamental (10 fs) and second harmonic (7 fs) pulse durations. (b) Red solid line: pressure 0.5 atm; green dashed line: I 2ω = 60 TW/cm2; blue dotted line: θ = 0. Note that the spectra are normalized to their intensity maxima (at Ω ≅ ν 0) to compare efficiencies.

Equations (4)

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J ˙ ( t ) + v e J ( t ) = q 2 m e E ( t ) ρ ( t ) ,
ρ ˙ ( t ) = W ST [ E ( t ) ] [ ρ at ρ ( t ) ] , W ST [ E ( t ) ] = α E a E ( t ) exp { β E a E ( t ) } .
2 E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) z 2 + k 2 ( ω ) E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) + Δ E ̃ ( r , z , ω ) = μ 0 ω 2 P ̃ nl ( r , z , ω ) ,
E ̃ j ( z , ω ) z = i β j ( ω ) E ̃ j ( z , ω ) + i μ 0 ω 2 2 β j ( ω ) P ̃ nl ( j ) ( z , ω ) .

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