Abstract

Reversible, fast, all-optical switching of the reflection of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is demonstrated in a formulation doped with push-pull azobenzene dyes. The reflection of the photosensitive CLC compositions is optically switched by exposure to 488 and 532 nm CW lasers as well as ns pulsed 532 nm irradiation. Laser-directed optical switching of the reflection of the CLC compositions occurs rapidly, within a few hundred milliseconds for the CW laser lines examined here. Also observed is optical switching on the order of tens of nanoseconds when the CLC is exposed to a single nanosecond pulse with 0.2 J/cm2 energy density. The rapid cis-trans isomerization typical of push-pull azobenzene dye is used for the first time to rapidly restore the reflection of the CLC from a photoinduced isotropic state within seconds after cessation of light exposure.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Conformational effect on macroscopic chirality modification of cholesteric mesophases by photochromic azobenzene dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(28), 6529–6535 (2000).
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  8. N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for colour information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L–1-15 (2009).
  25. U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).
  27. I.-C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. D. Liou, “Theory and experimental studies of all-optical transmission switching in a twist-alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1931–1937 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

2008 (4)

I.-C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. D. Liou, “Theory and experimental studies of all-optical transmission switching in a twist-alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1931–1937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for colour information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Conformational effect on macroscopic chirality modification of cholesteric mesophases by photochromic azobenzene dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(28), 6529–6535 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

E. Sackman, “Photochemically induced reversible color changes in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(25), 7088–7090 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between UV radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between UV radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arikainen, E. O.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belton, L. E.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chanishvili, A.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, H. F.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grozhik, V. A.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guillou, J.-P.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haas, W.

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between UV radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harada, H.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, L.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Conformational effect on macroscopic chirality modification of cholesteric mesophases by photochromic azobenzene dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(28), 6529–6535 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irick, G.

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, T.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kedziora, G.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keina, H.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I.-C.

Kimball, B.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Kurihara, S.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liou, J. D.

Nagarajan, R.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Nagase, T.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, S.

Nonaka, T.

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Pacifici, J. G.

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Park, L.-S.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quigley, C.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Ruslim, C.

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Conformational effect on macroscopic chirality modification of cholesteric mesophases by photochromic azobenzene dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(28), 6529–6535 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackman, E.

E. Sackman, “Photochemically induced reversible color changes in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(25), 7088–7090 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shirota, K.

K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sikharulidze, D.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Nersisyan, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical switching of liquid-crystal polarization gratings with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2554–2556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, K.

K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamaoki, N.

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for colour information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Usova, N. A.

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G. F.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Welch, J. R.

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

White, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, D. G.

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wildes, P. D.

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, J.

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between UV radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “„Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid c rystal with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 1–5 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for colour information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kurihara, T. Kanda, T. Nagase, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical color switching behavior of induced cholesteric liquid crystals for polarizer free liquid crystalline devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2081–2083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

E. Sackman, “Photochemically induced reversible color changes in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(25), 7088–7090 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Whitten, P. D. Wildes, J. G. Pacifici, and G. Irick., “Solvent and substituent on the thermal isomerization of substituted azobenzenes. Flash spectroscopic study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(8), 2004–2008 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable reflection notches of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Keina, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical modulation of color and transmittance in chiral nematic liquid crystal containing an azobenzene as a photosensitive chromophore,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7023–7028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Conformational effect on macroscopic chirality modification of cholesteric mesophases by photochromic azobenzene dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(28), 6529–6535 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. V. Serak, E. O. Arikainen, H. F. Gleeson, V. A. Grozhik, J.-P. Guillou, and N. A. Usova, “Laser-induced concentric colour domains in a cholesteric liquid crystal mixture containing a nematic azobenzene dopant,” Liq. Cryst. 29(1), 19–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

R. M. Osgood, D. M. Steeves, L. E. Belton, J. R. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. Quigley, G. F. Walsh, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Serak, and B. R. Kimball, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-doped azobenzene liquid crystals,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 1–7 (2009).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (5)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, “Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489, 257–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235–245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, “Chiral azobenzene nematics phototunable with a green laser beam,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 42–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between UV radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “„Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Shirota, K. Tachibana, and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical control of the pitch in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 372–375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soft. Mater. (1)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft. Mater. 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L–1-15 (2009).

H. Rau, “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, F. J. Rebek, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, 1990).

G. Chilaya, “Cholesteric liquid crystals: optics, electrooptics and photooptics”, in “Chirality in Lliquid Crystals”, Ch. Bahr and H. Kitzerow, eds (Springer Verlag, New York, 2000).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (2996 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Reflectance spectra of 1.6 μm thick azo-dye doped CLC during exposure to 31 mW/cm2 488 nm laser beam. Data taken for 0-7 seconds, every 0.5 seconds. (b) Reflectance spectra taken after laser has been shuttered. Data taken for 0-7 seconds, every 0.5 seconds. (c) Reflectance as a function of time for optical switching shown in (a) (■) and dark relaxation shown in (b) (○). (Media 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Reflected power of a 633 nm probe beam during and after exposure of the CPND-5 containing CLC to 532 nm laser. Inset: Photographs of the CLC reflection surrounding the area exposed to the 532 nm laser and the restoration of the reflection color a short time after the 532 nm laser irradiation was removed. (b) Response and (c) relaxation times as a function of incident power for 1.6 (■) and 3 (○) μm thick CLC cells.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Response of the CPND-5 containing CLC to a pulse from a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shape shown in (a). (a) Increase in transmission of the 633 nm probe beam over a time period of 200 ns. (b) Temporal dynamics for the restoration of the CLC reflection after exposure to the 6 ns pulse. Transmission of the 633 nm probe beam over a span of 3 seconds.

Equations (2)

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N c t = N T I N c τ c .
t off = τ c ln ( N C max N CLC )

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