Abstract

We present a coupler-free, multi-mode refractive index sensor based on nanostructured split ring resonators (SRRs). The fabricated SRR structures exhibit multiple reflectance peaks, whose spectral positions are sensitive to local dielectric environment and can be quantitatively described by our standing-wave plasmonic resonance model, providing a design rule for this multi-mode refractive-index (MMRI) sensor. We further manifest that the lower-order modes possess greater sensitivity associated with stronger localized electromagnetic field leading to shorter detection lengths within five hundreds nanometers, while the higher-order modes present mediate sensitivity with micron-scale detection lengths to allow intracellular bio-events detection. These unique merits enable the SRR-based sensor a multi-functional biosensor and a potential label-free imaging device.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen and T. J. Yen, “Electric and magnetic responses in the multiple-split ring resonators by electric excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 124913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle plasmon resonance band position to the dielectric environment as observed in scattering,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), 239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. T. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Act. B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen and T. J. Yen, “Electric and magnetic responses in the multiple-split ring resonators by electric excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 124913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. W.

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, H.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G. T.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. T. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Act. B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glidle, A.

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. T. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Act. B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle plasmon resonance band position to the dielectric environment as observed in scattering,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), 239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle plasmon resonance band position to the dielectric environment as observed in scattering,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), 239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheridan, A. K.

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. C.

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. T. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Act. B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

C. Y. Chen and T. J. Yen, “Electric and magnetic responses in the multiple-split ring resonators by electric excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 124913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yook, J. G.

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Tunable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, S. C. Wu, and T. J. Yen, “Experimental verification of standing-wave plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 034110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Y. Chen and T. J. Yen, “Electric and magnetic responses in the multiple-split ring resonators by electric excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 124913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle plasmon resonance band position to the dielectric environment as observed in scattering,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), 239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local Refractive Index Dependence of Plasmon Resonance Spectra from Individual Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs , “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Act. B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. T. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Act. B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer (1988).

A. Cunningham, “Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (techniques In Analytical Chemistry),” John Wiley & Sons (1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The designed SRR unit cell. (b) SEM images of fabricated planar SRRs. (c) Schematic reflectance measurement upon the SRR-based plasmonic sensor. Here no optical coupler is required to excite plasmonic resonance. The details of the measured geometric parameters of five samples can be found in supporting information.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(d) The normalized reflectance spectra of five different sized planar SRRs. The left panel is measured within the mid infrared (MIR) region and the right panel is measured within the near infrared (NIR) by μ-FTIR. In near infrared (NIR) measurement, the cut off at 0.8μm is due to instrument limit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance wavelength (λ m ) versus the reciprocal of resonance mode (1/m). All curves show a clear linear relationship. Among four samples, the longer SRR displays a greater slope, which is consistent with the SWPR model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(d) Normalized reflectance spectrum of d510 planar SRRs. The left panel is measured within the mid infrared (MIR) region and the right panel is measured within the near infrared (NIR) by μ-FTIR. Red and black curves represent the responses with and without a layer of PMMA film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear relationship between resonance wavelength (λm) and the reciprocal of resonance mode (1/m). The slope is proportional to total length of SRR (L) and correction factor (xa).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)(b) Simulated results of the varied detection lengths with respect to 1st to 5th resonance modes (for the sample d600). (c) Measured thickness effect of 2nd and 3rd resonance modes. (d) Measured thickness effect of left 4th and 5th resonance modes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured geometrical parameters of the fabricated planar SRRs.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L = m ( λ m + λ 0 ) 2 n e f f
n e f f = i = 1 k x i n i = x s u b n s u b + x a n a + ( 1 x s u b x a ) n a i r
S ( s e n s i t i v i t y ) = λ m n a = λ m n e f f n e f f n a = 2 L m n e f f n a λ o n a = x a 2 L m λ o n a

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