Abstract

We design a reliable linear three-element cavity to make a comparative study between the conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd:GdVO4 crystals in the passively mode-locked operation. Experimental investigations reveal that the mode-locked pulse width obtained with the diffusion-bonded crystal is considerably broader than that obtained with the conventional crystal, even though the diffusion-bonded crystal can significantly reduce the thermal effects. The pulse broadening is experimentally verified to come from the length of the undoped part that brings in a reduction of the spatial-hole-burning (SHB) effect.

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  1. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. F. Chen, S. W. Tsai, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, and K. F. Huang, “Diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked high-power Nd:YVO4 laser with a relaxed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 199–201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, and A. Nebel, “111 W, 110 MHz repetition-rate, passively mode-locked TEM00Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1259–1261 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).
  8. F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. T. Chang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/2→4I11/2 and 4F3/2→4I13/2 transitions,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21155–21160 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact Kerr-lens mode-locked resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(2), 134–136 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Y. Zhang, G. Li, M. Chen, Z. G. Zhang, and Y. G. Wang, “Passive mode locking of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1829–1831 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).
  18. S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. J. Flood, D. R. Walker, and H. M. van Driel, “Effect of spatial hole burning in a mode-locked diode end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 58–60 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2008

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/2→4I11/2 and 4F3/2→4I13/2 transitions,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21155–21160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, and A. Nebel, “111 W, 110 MHz repetition-rate, passively mode-locked TEM00Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1259–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Tsai, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, and K. F. Huang, “Diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked high-power Nd:YVO4 laser with a relaxed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 199–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

1999

1997

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact Kerr-lens mode-locked resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(2), 134–136 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Flood, D. R. Walker, and H. M. van Driel, “Effect of spatial hole burning in a mode-locked diode end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 58–60 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

Alexander, J.

Asom, M. T.

Aus der Au, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact Kerr-lens mode-locked resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(2), 134–136 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. T.

Chen, M.

Chen, Y. F.

Chiu, T. H.

Dymott, M. J. P.

Erhard, S.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

Fan, Y. X.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J. F.

Flood, C. J.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact Kerr-lens mode-locked resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(2), 134–136 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giesen, A.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hövel, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

Huang, K. F.

Huang, Y. P.

Inaba, H.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karszewski, M.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kmetec, J. D.

Kong, J.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Kopf, D.

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Li, G.

Li, T.

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. Y.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, L.

Meng, X. L.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Meyer, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

Moser, M.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, A.

Ng, S. P.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Pan, H. F.

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L. J.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Ramaswamy-Paye, M.

B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reffert, S.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Taguchi, N.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Truong, G.

Tsai, S. W.

Tsunekane, M.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Walker, D. R.

Wallenstein, R.

Wang, H. T.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Wang, Y. G.

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Zhang, G. Li, M. Chen, Z. G. Zhang, and Y. G. Wang, “Passive mode locking of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1829–1831 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingarten, K. J.

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. P.

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. Y.

Zhang, S. J.

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

Zhao, B.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Zhao, S.

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked lasers with high average power,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S25–S31 (2000).

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 61(5), 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, M. Ramaswamy-Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact resonator designs for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 213–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, B. Zhao, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 203–206 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Output-coupling semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2733–2735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. J. Zhang, E. Wu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

T. Li, Z. Zhuo, S. Zhao, and Y. G. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(5), 350–352 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, and Y. G. Wang, “Passively mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite crystal laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber as a high reflector,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(6), 421–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Flood, D. R. Walker, and H. M. van Driel, “Effect of spatial hole burning in a mode-locked diode end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 58–60 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, M. Moser, M. J. P. Dymott, D. Kopf, J. Meyer, K. J. Weingarten, J. D. Kmetec, J. Alexander, and G. Truong, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with 10-W average power in a diffraction-limited beam,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 528–530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact Kerr-lens mode-locked resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(2), 134–136 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Tsai, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, and K. F. Huang, “Diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked high-power Nd:YVO4 laser with a relaxed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 199–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Zhang, G. Li, M. Chen, Z. G. Zhang, and Y. G. Wang, “Passive mode locking of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1829–1831 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, and A. Nebel, “111 W, 110 MHz repetition-rate, passively mode-locked TEM00Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1259–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The configurations for a three-element cavity (a) with and (b) without the thermal-lensing effect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated results for the factor η as a function of L1 and L2 with f = 125 mm; the black color denotes the unstable zone.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of a linear three-element diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked laser; (b) conventional Nd:GdVO4 crystal; (c) composite GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average output power at 1064 nm versus incident pump power in cw mode-locked operations. And pulse trains on two circumstances with time span of 200 ns: (b) Stable cw mode-locked pulse train; (c) Modulation mode-locked pulse train with 24-MHz fluctuation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocorrelation traces of the output pulses from (a) cw mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser and (b) cw mode-locked GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser;

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical spectrum for (a) cw mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser and (b) cw mode-locked GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pulse width (red) and spectral FWHM (green) as a function of the Nd-doped gain medium/front mirror separation d.

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