Abstract

We developed a universal, real-time uniform K-space sampling (Rt-UKSS) method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). An external clock uniform in K-space was generated. The clock was synchronized with the zero-crossing time of an interferometric calibration signal and used as triggers for a high-speed data acquisition system in a point-by-point fashion, hence enabling uniform data sampling in K-space. Different from the numerical calibration algorithm commonly used in an SS-OCT system, the method reported here does not require over-sampling, thus greatly reducing the demand for digitization, data processing and storage speed. The Rt-UKSS method is adaptive and applicable to a generic SS-OCT system of a wide range of A-scan rates without special adjustment. We successfully implemented the Rt-UKSS method in an SS-OCT system based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser (FDML) of a 40-kHz scanning rate. Real-time imaging of biological tissues using such a system was demonstrated with a measured axial resolution of 9.3 μm and detection sensitivity greater than 120dB.

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  1. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (3)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, Y. L.

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gorczynska, I.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huber, R.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Palte, G.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

Sarunic, M. V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Swanson, E. A.

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C. H.

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of external clock generator. (B) Illustration of the original MZI signal (blue line) and its quadrant signal after the broadband 90° phase shifter (red line). (C) Illustration of zero-crossing signals generated from the MZI and quadrant signals in (B). (D) External clock signal that combines the XOR gate output with a gap-filling dummy clock. The vertical dotted lines indicate the rising edges of the signals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a swept-source OCT imaging system equipped with the real-time linear K-space sampling method. BD: balanced detector; CIR: circulator; CL: collimating lens; DAQ: data acquisition; GV: galvanometer mirror; M: mirror; ND: neutral density filter; OC: optical coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) MZI interference signal. The upper and lower insets show the MZI signal at the beginning (or end) and the center of an A-scan, respectively, indicating that the MZI signal frequency varies during wavelength scanning. (B) External clock signal during forward wavelength scanning with the FFP-TF driven by a 40 kHz sinusoidal wave. The insets show the duty ratio of the external clock keeps very close to 50% which is essential to keep the high-speed digitizer working properly and continuously.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Point-spread function of an FDML-based SS-OCT system equipped with the real-time linear K-space sampling method. (B) Point-spread function versus imaging depth revealing no axial resolution degradation throughout the imaging depth of 2.5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative images acquired with an FDML-based SS-OCT system equipped with the real-time linear K-space sampling method. (A) Finger tip. (B) Finger nail fold.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between real-time linear K-space sampling and numerical calibration

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