Abstract

An analysis of the peculiar features of optical wire antennas with displaced terminals is presented. Full-wave simulations and a semi-analytical technique based on Pocklington’s equation are used in order to systematically study the behavior of input impedance and field enhancement at the antenna terminals when the feed-gap region is shifted with respect to the center of the wire. A simple analytical model based on the evaluation of the effective wavelength of the propagating surface wave is also suggested for the interpretation of the results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, “Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 17, 5925–5932 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenza, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 16, 20295–20305 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. A. Balanis, Antenna theory: analysis and design (Wiley, 2005).
  11. A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, D. Modotto, S. Boscolo, F. Sacchetto, M. Midrio, A.-D. Capobianco, F. M. Pigozzo, and C. G. Someda, “Modeling of enhanced field confinement and scattering by optical wire antennas,” Opt. Express 17, 16792–16800 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, “Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 17, 5925–5932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, D. Modotto, S. Boscolo, F. Sacchetto, M. Midrio, A.-D. Capobianco, F. M. Pigozzo, and C. G. Someda, “Modeling of enhanced field confinement and scattering by optical wire antennas,” Opt. Express 17, 16792–16800 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenza, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 16, 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

Biagioni, P.

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

Boscolo, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, A.-D.

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, C.

Deutsch, B.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feichtner, T.

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funston, A. M.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

Kelley, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenza, P. M.

Locatelli, A.

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Midrio, M.

Modotto, D.

Mulvaney, P.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novo, C.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olmon, R. L.

Peschel, U.

Pigozzo, F. M.

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, S.

Sacchetto, F.

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Someda, C. G.

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchscherer, P.

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronine, D. V.

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Nano Lett.

J. S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9, 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today, 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. A. Balanis, Antenna theory: analysis and design (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic view of the optical dipole antenna with displaced terminals. (b) Thevenin equivalent circuit in the receiving mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Antenna with centered feed-gap, full-wave simulations (black lines with diamonds); antenna with feed-gap shifted by 20 nm, full-wave simulations (red lines with squares) and results from Pocklington’s equation (blue lines with circles, almost overlapped with the red ones). (a) Input resistance. (b) Input reactance. (c) Field enhancement at the feed-gap.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Current distribution along the optical dipole antenna: s = 0 nm (red line without markers), s = 10 nm (blue line with diamonds), s = 20 nm (black line with circles), s = 30 nm (magenta line with squares), s = 40 nm (green line with triangles), and s = 50 nm (cyan line with pluses). (a) First short-circuit resonance. (b) First open-circuit resonance. (c) Second short-circuit resonance. (d) Second open-circuit resonance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Resonance frequencies as a function of the gap shift: full-wave simulations (red circles), solutions of Pocklington’s equation (blue lines), and analytical formulas (dashed black lines). (b) Field enhancement at the feed-gap as a function of the gap shift: first short-circuit resonance (magenta line with diamonds), first open-circuit resonance (blue line with squares), second short-circuit resonance (black line with triangles), and second open-circuit resonance (red line with circles).

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