Abstract

A model for the fluorescence sensing properties of small-core high-refractive-index fibers (optical nanowires) is developed and compared quantitatively with experiment. For the first time, higher-order modes and loss factors relevant to optical nanowires are included, which allows the model to be compared effectively with experiment via the use of fluorophore filled suspended optical nanowires. Numerical results show that high-index materials are beneficial for fluorescence-based sensing. However, both numerical and experimental results show that the fluorescence signal is relatively insensitive to core size, except for low concentration sensing where nanoscale fiber cores are advantageous due to the increased evanescent field power.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

E. P. Schartner, R. T. White, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Practical sensitive fluorescence sensing with microstructured fibres,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035X (2009).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

1994

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. O. Egalon, R. S. Rogowski, and A. C. Tai, “Excitation efficiency of an optical fiber core source,” Opt. Eng. 31(6), 1328–1331 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Efficiency of core light injection from sources in the cladding - bulk distribution,” Opt. Eng. 31(4), 846–851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Theoretical-model for a thin cylindrical film optical fiber fluorosensor,” Opt. Eng. 31(2), 237–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Marcuse, “Launching light into fiber cores from sources located in the cladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(8), 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1975

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).

Afshar, S.

Albin, S.

A. Bryant, S. Albin, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Changes in the amount of core light injection for fluorescent-clad optical-fiber due to variations in the fiber refractive-index and core radius - experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(5), 904–906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Barth, M.

Benson, O.

Birks, T. A.

Bise, R.

Bise, R. T.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Bryant, A.

Bryant, A. L.

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. S. Y.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Cox, F. M.

Du, H.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, “Design of solid-core microstructured optical fiber with steering-wheel air cladding for optimal evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3541–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Egalon, C. O.

A. Bryant, S. Albin, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Changes in the amount of core light injection for fluorescent-clad optical-fiber due to variations in the fiber refractive-index and core radius - experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(5), 904–906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Efficiency of core light injection from sources in the cladding - bulk distribution,” Opt. Eng. 31(4), 846–851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon, R. S. Rogowski, and A. C. Tai, “Excitation efficiency of an optical fiber core source,” Opt. Eng. 31(6), 1328–1331 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Theoretical-model for a thin cylindrical film optical fiber fluorosensor,” Opt. Eng. 31(2), 237–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Emiliyanov, G.

Euser, T. G.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, N. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foo, T. C.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glass, T. R.

Hansen, T. P.

He, J.

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirschfeld, T.

Hoffmann, P.

Hoiby, P. E.

Hu, L.

Jensen, J. B.

Kanka, J.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kao, H. P.

Knight, J. C.

Lackie, S.

Large, M. C. J.

Lou, J.

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Mangan, B. J.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Launching light into fiber cores from sources located in the cladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(8), 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

E. P. Schartner, R. T. White, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Practical sensitive fluorescence sensing with microstructured fibres,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035X (2009).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, T. C. Foo, S. C. Warren-Smith, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18514–18523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, “Theoretical study of liquid-immersed exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9034–9045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

Pedersen, L. H.

Peterka, P.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Poletti, F.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 10501–10503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Richardson, D. J.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 10501–10503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Roberts, P. J.

Rogowski, R. S.

A. Bryant, S. Albin, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Changes in the amount of core light injection for fluorescent-clad optical-fiber due to variations in the fiber refractive-index and core radius - experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(5), 904–906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Efficiency of core light injection from sources in the cladding - bulk distribution,” Opt. Eng. 31(4), 846–851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon, R. S. Rogowski, and A. C. Tai, “Excitation efficiency of an optical fiber core source,” Opt. Eng. 31(6), 1328–1331 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Theoretical-model for a thin cylindrical film optical fiber fluorosensor,” Opt. Eng. 31(2), 237–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Ruan, Y. L.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

Sadler, P. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 10501–10503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scharrer, M.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, E. P.

E. P. Schartner, R. T. White, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Practical sensitive fluorescence sensing with microstructured fibres,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035X (2009).

Y. L. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schoeniger, J. S.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Simonsen, H. R.

Smolka, S.

Sørensen, T.

Tai, A. C.

C. O. Egalon, R. S. Rogowski, and A. C. Tai, “Excitation efficiency of an optical fiber core source,” Opt. Eng. 31(6), 1328–1331 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

Tong, L. M.

G. Y. Zhai and L. M. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuominen, J.

Warren-Smith, S. C.

Webb, A. S.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 10501–10503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, R. T.

E. P. Schartner, R. T. White, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Practical sensitive fluorescence sensing with microstructured fibres,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035X (2009).

Yang, N.

Yang, Q.

Ye, Z.

Zhai, G. Y.

Zhang, J.

Zhu, Y.

Zhu, Y. N.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

D. Marcuse, “Excitation of parabolic-index fibers with incoherent sources,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1507–1530 (1975).

J. Appl. Phys.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. St. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Marcuse, “Launching light into fiber cores from sources located in the cladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(8), 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. N. Zhu, R. T. Bise, J. Kanka, P. Peterka, and H. Du, “Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap,” Opt. Commun. 281(1), 55–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 10501–10503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon, R. S. Rogowski, and A. C. Tai, “Excitation efficiency of an optical fiber core source,” Opt. Eng. 31(6), 1328–1331 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Efficiency of core light injection from sources in the cladding - bulk distribution,” Opt. Eng. 31(4), 846–851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Egalon and R. S. Rogowski, “Theoretical-model for a thin cylindrical film optical fiber fluorosensor,” Opt. Eng. 31(2), 237–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Albin, A. L. Bryant, C. O. Egalon, and R. S. Rogowski, “Injection efficiency from a side-excited thin-film fluorescent cladding of a circular wave-guide,” Opt. Eng. 33(4), 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Ruan, T. C. Foo, S. C. Warren-Smith, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18514–18523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lou, L. Tong, and Z. Ye, “Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2135–2140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, “Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5883–5889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7779–7793 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, L. Hu, J. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Lou, Y. Shen, J. He, and Z. Ye, “Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 14(1), 82–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, “Design of solid-core microstructured optical fiber with steering-wheel air cladding for optimal evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3541–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Cox, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Liquid-filled hollow core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4135–4140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, “Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12783–12791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Zhai and L. M. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, “Theoretical study of liquid-immersed exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9034–9045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

E. P. Schartner, R. T. White, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Practical sensitive fluorescence sensing with microstructured fibres,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035X (2009).

Other

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