Abstract

We report a first experimental study of the nonlinear dynamics appearing in a 1550 nm single-mode VCSEL subject to parallel and to orthogonal optical injection. For the first time to our knowledge we report experimentally measured stability maps identifying the boundaries between regions of different nonlinear dynamics for both cases of polarized injection. A rich variety of nonlinear behaviours, including periodic (limit cycle, period doubling) and chaotic dynamics have been experimentally observed.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 1.55 microm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Sciamanna and K. Panajotov, “Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023811 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Differences in the injection locking bandwidth in 1550nm-VCSELs subject to parallel and orthogonal optical injection”, IEEE 21st International Semiconductor Laser Conference, 2008, ISLC 2008, 87–88, Sorrento (Italy), 14–18 September 2008.
  22. A. Quirce, A. Hurtado, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and M. J. Adams, “Nonlinear Polarization Dynamics Induced by Orthogonal Optical Injection in 1550nm Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, 22nd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, PHO 2009, Belek-Antalya (Turkey), 4–9 October 2009.
  23. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M.-R. Park, “O.-Kyun Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L8–L10 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 1.55 microm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajotov, “Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-R. Park, “O.-Kyun Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 1.55 microm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buesa, J.

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chau, T.

X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Faraji, B.

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gatare, I.

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Molina, M.

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Q.

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hang, C.-H.

C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I. D.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 1.55 microm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, W.

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homayounfar, A.

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurtado, A.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 1.55 microm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, B.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mogensen, F.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nizette, M.

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olesen, H.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. G.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajotov, “Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.-R.

M.-R. Park, “O.-Kyun Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L.

A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quirce, A.

A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rees, P.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajotov, “Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. B.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P. S.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A.

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wieczorek, S.

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, B. S.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. T. Asom, R. E. Leibenguth, G. D. Guth, and M. W. Focht, “Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2999–3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

X. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2031–2032 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, P. Rees, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection dynamics of two-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 274–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(7), 784–793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Hang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, B. Faraji, W. Hofmann, M.-C. Amann, S. Wieczorek, and W. W. Chow, “40 GHz bandwidth and 64 GHz resonance frequency in injection-locked 1.55 μm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1200–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Q. Gu, W. Hoffmann, M.-C. Amann, and L. Chrostowski, “Optically injection-locked VCSEL as a duplex transmitter/receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 463–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Quirce, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Very wide hysteresis cycles in 1550 nm-VCSELs subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1193–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M.-R. Park, “O.-Kyun Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(4-6), 429–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 416(1-2), 1–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajotov, “Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(2), 026218 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Panajotov, I. Gatare, A. Valle, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, ““Polarization- and Transverse-Mode Dynamics in Optically Injected and Gain-Switched Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, in IEEE J,” Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1473–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Differences in the injection locking bandwidth in 1550nm-VCSELs subject to parallel and orthogonal optical injection”, IEEE 21st International Semiconductor Laser Conference, 2008, ISLC 2008, 87–88, Sorrento (Italy), 14–18 September 2008.

A. Quirce, A. Hurtado, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and M. J. Adams, “Nonlinear Polarization Dynamics Induced by Orthogonal Optical Injection in 1550nm Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers”, 22nd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, PHO 2009, Belek-Antalya (Turkey), 4–9 October 2009.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. (b) L-I curve and (c) spectrum of the VCSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental stability map of the 1550nm-VCSEL subject to parallel polarized injection; Different regions are observed: SIL (stable injection locking), P1 (Period 1), P2 (period 2) and CH (chaos); (b-e) RF spectra measured for the situations indicated in the stability map corresponding to a frequency detuning of 2.2 GHz and various levels of input power: (b) 5.8 μW (chaos, CH), (c) 19.6 μW (Period 1, P1), (d) 58.31 μW (Period 2, P2) and (e) 122.5 μW (Period 1, P1). Applied bias current of 4 mA (IBias = 2.44 x Ith ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Stability map of the 1550nm-VCSEL subject to orthogonal injection. Different regions are observed: SIL (stable injection locking), PS (polarization switching), P1 (period 1) and CH (chaos); The black dots included in the map mark the nonlinear dynamic situations analyzed in Figs. 4(a-h). (b) Optical spectrum of the free-running VCSEL. (c) Optical spectrum of the VCSEL subject to orthogonal injection with input power of 52 μW and Δf = −0.9 GHz. Polarization switching is produced. Applied bias current of 4 mA (IBias = 2.44 x Ith ) in all cases..

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental RF spectra (a-d) and time series (e-h) measured when the 1550nm VCSEL is subject to orthogonal optical injection with a constant power of 52 μW and for various cases of frequency detuning. (a,b) Δf = 2.35 GHz, (P1, period 1) (c,d) Δf = −0.9 GHz, (SIL, stable injection locking) (e,f) Δf = −2.8 GHz (CH, chaos) and (g,h) Δf = −3.3 GHz (P1, period 1).

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