Abstract

Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is constructed by reasonable optical parameters and Monte Carlo ray-tracing with the capability of precisely predicting light extraction and radiation pattern for both bare LED and packaged LED. Refractive indices and absorption coefficients of LED materials are determined by abundant references and comparisons between simulations and experiments. Surface roughness is considered in the optical model to improve the simulation precision. The simulation precisions are excellent for both bare blue LEDs (>96.5% for light extraction and >99% for radiation pattern) and packaged blue LEDs (>98.5% for both light extraction and radiation pattern).

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (6)

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koteswara Rao and V. Rajagopal Reddy, “Effect of annealing temperature on electrical and structural properties of transparent indium tin oxide electrode to n-type GaN,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114(2-3), 821–826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Raoufi, “Morphological characterization of ITO thin films surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(6), 3682–3686 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou and S. Liu, “Study on sapphire removal for thin-film LEDs fabrication using CMP and dry etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(23), 9469–9473 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Cui, V. Teixeira, L. J. Meng, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature,” Vacuum 82(12), 1507–1511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “An improved non-alloyed ohmic contact Cr/Ni/Au to n-type GaN with surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(17), 175107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, J. H. Ryu, K. S. Lee, C. H. Tan, L. H. Jin, S. M. Li, C. H. Hong, Y. H. Cho, and S. H. Liu, “Active packing method for blue light-emitting diodes with photosensitive polymerization: formation of self-focusing encapsulates,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3680–3685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, and T.-H. Yang, “Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20060–20066 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T.-X. Lee, K.-F. Gao, W.-T. Chien, and C.-C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (6)

T.-X. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, S.-H. Ma, and C.-C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Senthilkumar, N. K. Sahoo, S. Thakur, and R. B. Tokas, “Characterization of microroughness parameters in gadolinium oxide thin films: A study based on extended power spectral density analyses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1608–1619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (9)

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 36–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, L. A. Tessaroto, R. Sabia, V. A. Greenhut, M. Smith, and D. E. Niesz, “Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) anisotropy in sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 236(1-4), 120–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eichler, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M. Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, C. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, “Absorption and Light Scattering in InGaN-on-Sapphire- and AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2323–2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim and D. D. Martin, “Surface properties of GaN fabricated by laser lift-off and ICP etching,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 40, 567–571 (2002).

H. El Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201(1-4), 138–145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot hole relaxation dynamics in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1185–1187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, and W. Van der Stricht, “Exciton localization and the Stokes' shift in InGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 263–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, and P. G. Middleton, “Origin of Luminescence from InGaN Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 237–240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Djurišić and E. H. Li, “Modeling the optical constants of hexagonal GaN, InN, and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2848–2853 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Asadchikov, A. Duparré, S. Jakobs, A. Y. Karabekov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and Y. S. Krivonosov, “Comparative Study of the Roughness of Optical Surfaces and Thin Films by use of X-Ray Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(4), 684–691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Jakobs, A. Duparré, and H. Truckenbrodt, “Interfacial roughness and related scatter in ultraviolet optical coatings: a systematic experimental approach,” Appl. Opt. 37(7), 1180–1193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bergmann and J. H. C. Casey, “Optical-field calculations for lossy multiple-layer AlxGa1-xN/InxGa1-xN laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1196–1203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Peng and J. Piprek, “Refractive index of AlGaInN alloys,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2285–2286 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

Abid, H.

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.

H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anani, M.

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, P.

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armour, E. A.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asadchikov, V. E.

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Ban, Y.

Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, S. C.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benamar, E.

H. El Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201(1-4), 138–145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

Bentoumi, G.

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann and J. H. C. Casey, “Optical-field calculations for lossy multiple-layer AlxGa1-xN/InxGa1-xN laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1196–1203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bermúdez, D.

Bochkareva, N.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Casey, J. H. C.

M. J. Bergmann and J. H. C. Casey, “Optical-field calculations for lossy multiple-layer AlxGa1-xN/InxGa1-xN laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1196–1203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chama, Z.

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, K. H.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W.-T.

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “An improved non-alloyed ohmic contact Cr/Ni/Au to n-type GaN with surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(17), 175107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-F.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.-T.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J.-I.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. N.

H. N. Cui, V. Teixeira, L. J. Meng, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature,” Vacuum 82(12), 1507–1511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J. A.

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Mierry, P.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Degroote, S.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deneuville, A.

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Derluyn, J.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Disseix, P.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

A. B. Djurišić and E. H. Li, “Modeling the optical constants of hexagonal GaN, InN, and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2848–2853 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

Duparré, A.

Edagawa, K.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, C.

El Rhaleb, H.

H. El Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201(1-4), 138–145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ennaoui, A.

H. El Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201(1-4), 138–145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eri, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot hole relaxation dynamics in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1185–1187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Fletcher, I.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, D. I.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

H. N. Cui, V. Teixeira, L. J. Meng, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature,” Vacuum 82(12), 1507–1511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K.-F.

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenhut, V. A.

H. Zhu, L. A. Tessaroto, R. Sabia, V. A. Greenhut, M. Smith, and D. E. Niesz, “Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) anisotropy in sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 236(1-4), 120–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Guo, Q. X.

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gwo, S.

H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Habel, F.

Haffouz, S.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hageman, P.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hakam, A.

H. El Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201(1-4), 138–145 (2002).
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Haller, E. E.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, I.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1 -xN and InyGa1 -yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, H.-Y.

He, L.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

Hong, C. H.

Hopler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-C.

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-M.

Ishikawa, H.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

Jiang, L. F.

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L. H.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 36–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, Y.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karabekov, A. Y.

Karnutsch, C.

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khelifa, B.

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim and D. D. Martin, “Surface properties of GaN fabricated by laser lift-off and ICP etching,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 40, 567–571 (2002).

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “An improved non-alloyed ohmic contact Cr/Ni/Au to n-type GaN with surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(17), 175107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, T.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koteswara Rao, P.

P. Koteswara Rao and V. Rajagopal Reddy, “Effect of annealing temperature on electrical and structural properties of transparent indium tin oxide electrode to n-type GaN,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114(2-3), 821–826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

Krivonosov, Y. S.

Kuijk, M.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. F.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kvietkova, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahreche, H.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.-I.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larkins, E. C.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1 -xN and InyGa1 -yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laws, G. M.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1 -xN and InyGa1 -yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “An improved non-alloyed ohmic contact Cr/Ni/Au to n-type GaN with surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(17), 175107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T.-X.

Lee, Y.-L.

Lelikov, Y.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leymarie, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leys, M.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. H.

A. B. Djurišić and E. H. Li, “Modeling the optical constants of hexagonal GaN, InN, and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2848–2853 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. M.

Li, S. X.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lieten, R. R.

R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Growth of InN on Ge(1 1 1) by molecular beam epitaxy using a GaN buffer,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(6), 1132–1136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, T. Y.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou and S. Liu, “Study on sapphire removal for thin-film LEDs fabrication using CMP and dry etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(23), 9469–9473 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (Accepted).

Liu, S. H.

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (Accepted).

Lo, Y.-C.

Lu, D.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (Accepted).

Ma, S.-H.

Marenco, N.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D. D.

H. S. Kim and D. D. Martin, “Surface properties of GaN fabricated by laser lift-off and ICP etching,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 40, 567–571 (2002).

Martin, R. W.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, and P. G. Middleton, “Origin of Luminescence from InGaN Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 237–240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, and W. Van der Stricht, “Exciton localization and the Stokes' shift in InGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 263–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

H. N. Cui, V. Teixeira, L. J. Meng, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature,” Vacuum 82(12), 1507–1511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, I.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, C.

M. Anani, H. Abid, Z. Chama, C. Mathieu, A. Sayede, and B. Khelifa, “InxGa1-xN refractive index calculations,” Microelectron. J. 38(2), 262–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, L. J.

H. N. Cui, V. Teixeira, L. J. Meng, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature,” Vacuum 82(12), 1507–1511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Merai, V.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, P. G.

R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, and W. Van der Stricht, “Exciton localization and the Stokes' shift in InGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 263–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, and P. G. Middleton, “Origin of Luminescence from InGaN Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 237–240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, C.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1 -xN and InyGa1 -yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Morkoc, H.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, E.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neubert, B.

Niesz, D. E.

H. Zhu, L. A. Tessaroto, R. Sabia, V. A. Greenhut, M. Smith, and D. E. Niesz, “Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) anisotropy in sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 236(1-4), 120–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novak, S. W.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, K. P.

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, and P. G. Middleton, “Origin of Luminescence from InGaN Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 237–240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, and I. Moerman, “Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 288–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, and W. Van der Stricht, “Exciton localization and the Stokes' shift in InGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 263–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, H.

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Omnes, F.

F. Omnes, N. Marenco, S. Haffouz, H. Lahreche, P. de Mierry, B. Beaumont, P. Hageman, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and E. Munoz, “Low pressure MOVPE grown AlGaN for UV photodetector applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 401–406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orton, J. W.

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, Y.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parekh, A.

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Sabia, R.

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M. Senthilkumar, N. K. Sahoo, S. Thakur, and R. B. Tokas, “Characterization of microroughness parameters in gadolinium oxide thin films: A study based on extended power spectral density analyses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1608–1619 (2005).
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H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
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H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
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Shen, G.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
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Shen, Q.

Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
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Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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Sugahara, T.

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
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Suzuki, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
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Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
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Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
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Tan, C. H.

Tarkin, D.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
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X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
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M. Senthilkumar, N. K. Sahoo, S. Thakur, and R. B. Tokas, “Characterization of microroughness parameters in gadolinium oxide thin films: A study based on extended power spectral density analyses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1608–1619 (2005).
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Tokas, R. B.

M. Senthilkumar, N. K. Sahoo, S. Thakur, and R. B. Tokas, “Characterization of microroughness parameters in gadolinium oxide thin films: A study based on extended power spectral density analyses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1608–1619 (2005).
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Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
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Walukiewicz, W.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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Wang, H.

Wang, K.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
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Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
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Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (Accepted).

Wang, S. C.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
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Wang, T.

J. A. Davidson, P. Dawson, T. Wang, T. Sugahara, J. W. Orton, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence studies of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 497–505 (2000).
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Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
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Wicks, G. W.

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot hole relaxation dynamics in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1185–1187 (2000).
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H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, P. G.

Wu, C. L.

H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Y.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, J. Li, C. Xu, and G. Shen, “Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(12), 6121–6124 (2009).
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Y. Takeda, D. Takagi, T. Sano, S. Tabata, N. Kobayashi, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, J. Yamamoto, Y. Ban, and K. Matsumoto, “Room-temperature absorption edge of InGaN/GaN quantum wells characterized by photoacoustic measurement,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8805–8807 (2008).
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Yang, H. C.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J.-I. Chyi, “Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3712–3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. F.

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.-H.

Ye, H.

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot hole relaxation dynamics in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1185–1187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
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H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026103 (2007).
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Yu, C.-C.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

W. Walukiewicz, S. X. Li, J. Wu, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Optical properties and electronic structure of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(1), 119–127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, F.

F. Yun, M. A. Reshchikov, L. He, T. King, H. Morkoc, S. W. Novak, and L. Wei, “Energy band bowing parameter in Al[sub x]Ga[sub 1 - x]N alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4837–4839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou and S. Liu, “Study on sapphire removal for thin-film LEDs fabrication using CMP and dry etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(23), 9469–9473 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, L. A. Tessaroto, R. Sabia, V. A. Greenhut, M. Smith, and D. E. Niesz, “Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) anisotropy in sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 236(1-4), 120–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process (1)

L. F. Jiang, W. Z. Shen, H. F. Yang, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Temperature effects on optical properties of InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 78(1), 89–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H. Ahn, C. H. Shen, C. L. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of wurtzite InN epitaxial films on Si(111) with varied carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot hole relaxation dynamics in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1185–1187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, and W. Van der Stricht, “Exciton localization and the Stokes' shift in InGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 263–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of typical structures of three blue LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices of LED materials and the spectra of blue light (1 mW).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficients of LED materials from references and our calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface roughness of some commercial LED samples. (a) Top surface of ITO. (b) Top surface of sapphire. (c) Lateral surface of sapphire.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PSD functions from the tested AFM data of some rms roughness values. (b) Reflectance of Ag at the interfaces of p-GaN/Ag and sapphire/Ag. The solid lines in (a) are the fitting curves of k-correlation model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of experimental samples and ray-tracing models for packaged conventional chip and packaged flip chip, and illustration of the package structure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparisons of light extraction efficiencies between the simulation and the experiment for (a) bare blue LEDs and (b) packaged blue LEDs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparisons of radiation patterns between the simulation and the experiment for (a) conventional chip, (b) flip chip, (c) vertical injection chip, and (d) Case IV. The solid lines are the simulation results and the dashed lines are the experimental results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparisons of radiation patterns between the simulation and the experiment for (a) packaged conventional chip and (b) packaged flip chip. The solid lines are the simulation results and the dashed lines are the experimental results.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Values of NCC of the radiation pattern between the simulation and the experiment for (a) bare blue LEDs and (b) packaged blue LEDs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation Cases for Bare Blue LEDs

Equations (20)

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n ( h v ) = { a ( h v / E g ) 2 [ 2 ( 1 + h v / E g ) 0.5 ( 1 h v / E g ) 0.5 ] + b } 0.5
E g ( x ) = 3.45 ( 1 x ) + 6.13 x 1.3 x ( 1 x )
a ( x ) = 9.82661 8.21608 x 31.5902 x 2
b ( x ) = 2.73591 + 0.84249 x 6.29321 x 2
E g ( y ) = 0.7 y + 3.45 ( 1 y ) 1.4 y ( 1 y )
n ( λ ) 2 = 1 + A 1 λ 2 / ( λ 2 λ 1 2 ) + A 2 λ 2 / ( λ 2 λ 2 2 ) + A 3 λ 2 / ( λ 2 λ 3 2 )
n ( λ ) = B 1 + B 2 / λ 2 + B 3 / λ 4
n MQW = ( d 1 n InGaN + d 2 n GaN ) / ( d 1 + d 2 )
α = α 0 / { 1 + exp [ ( E B E ) / Δ E ] }
E B = 0.993 + 0.719 E P
α = α 1 + ( α 0 α 1 ) / { 1 + exp [ ( E B E ) / Δ E ] }
α = 4 π ( C 1 / λ + C 2 / λ 2 + C 3 / λ 3 + C 4 / λ 4 )
TIS = 1 exp [ ( 4 π δ cos θ 0 / λ ) 2 ]
PSD ( f x , f y ) = 1 L 2 { m = 1 N n = 1 N z m n × exp [ 2 π i Δ L ( f x m + f y n ) ] ( Δ L ) 2 } 2
BSDF ( θ i , θ s ) = ( 16 π 2 / λ 4 ) cos θ i cos θ s Q ( θ i , θ s ) PSD ( f x , f y )
f x = ( sin θ s cos ϕ s sin θ i ) / λ ,     f y = ( sin θ s cos ϕ s ) / λ
PSD ABC = A / [ ( 1 + B 2 f x , y 2 ) ( C + 1 ) / 2 ]
δ 2 = 2 π A / [ B 2 ( C 1 ) ]
R = 1 2 [ ( n Ag n i cos θ i ) 2 + k Ag 2 ( n Ag + n i cos θ i ) 2 + k Ag 2 + ( n Ag n i / cos θ i ) 2 + k Ag 2 ( n Ag + n i / cos θ i ) 2 + k Ag 2 ]
NCC = i [ I ( θ i ) s I ¯ s ] [ I ( θ i ) e I ¯ e ] / i [ I ( θ i ) s I ¯ s ] 2 i [ I ( θ i ) e I ¯ e ] 2

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